Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines. This term is typically used to address an education policy or curriculum choices in schools. It has implications for workforce development, national security concerns (as a shortage of STEM-educated citizens can reduce effectiveness in this area) and immigration policy.[1]

There is no universal agreement on which disciplines are included in STEM; in particular whether or not the science in STEM includes social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, economics, and political science. In the United States, these are typically included by organizations such as the National Science Foundation,[1] the Department of Labor's O*Net online database for job seekers,[2] and the Department of Homeland Security.[3] In the United Kingdom, the social sciences are categorized separately and are instead grouped together with humanities and arts to form another counterpart acronym HASS (Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences), rebranded in 2020 as SHAPE (Social Sciences, Humanities and the Arts for People and the Economy).[4][5]

  1. ^ a b "Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer" (PDF). Fas.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  2. ^ "Research, Development, Design, and Practitioners STEM Occupations". Onetonline.org. 2021-11-16. Archived from the original on 2021-11-16. Retrieved 2021-12-02.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-08-24. Retrieved 2021-11-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ British Academy (2020). "SHAPE". SHAPE. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  5. ^ Black, Julia (2 November 2020). "SHAPE – A Focus on the Human World". Social Science Space. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.

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