Computer science

Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information.[1] Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, and information theory) to practical disciplines (including the design and implementation of hardware and software).[2][3] Computer science is generally considered an area of academic research and distinct from computer programming.[4]

Algorithms and data structures are central to computer science.[5] The theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them. The fields of cryptography and computer security involve studying the means for secure communication and for preventing security vulnerabilities. Computer graphics and computational geometry address the generation of images. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, and database theory concerns the management of repositories of data. Human–computer interaction investigates the interfaces through which humans and computers interact, and software engineering focuses on the design and principles behind developing software. Areas such as operating systems, networks and embedded systems investigate the principles and design behind complex systems. Computer architecture describes the construction of computer components and computer-operated equipment. Artificial intelligence and machine learning aim to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, planning and learning found in humans and animals. Within artificial intelligence, computer vision aims to understand and process image and video data, while natural-language processing aims to understand and process textual and linguistic data.

The fundamental concern of computer science is determining what can and cannot be automated.[6][7][8][9][10] The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science.[11][12]

  1. ^ "What is Computer Science? - Computer Science. The University of York". www.cs.york.ac.uk. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  2. ^ "WordNet Search—3.1". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  3. ^ "Definition of computer science | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  4. ^ Denning, P.J.; Comer, D.E.; Gries, D.; Mulder, M.C.; Tucker, A.; Turner, A.J.; Young, P.R. (February 1989). "Computing as a discipline". Computer. 22 (2): 63–70. doi:10.1109/2.19833. ISSN 1558-0814. Those in the discipline know that computer science encompasses far more than programming.
  5. ^ Harel, David (2014). Algorithmics The Spirit of Computing. Springer Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-44135-6. OCLC 876384882.
  6. ^ The MIT Press (April 30, 1980). What Can Be Automated? Computer Science and Engineering Research Study | The MIT Press. mitpress.mit.edu. Computer Science Series. MIT Press. ISBN 9780262010603.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ Patton, Richard D.; Patton, Peter C. (2009), Nof, Shimon Y. (ed.), "What Can Be Automated? What Cannot Be Automated?", Springer Handbook of Automation, Springer Handbooks, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 305–313, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-78831-7_18, ISBN 978-3-540-78831-7, retrieved March 3, 2022
  8. ^ Denning, P.J.; Comer, D.E.; Gries, D.; Mulder, M.C.; Tucker, A.; Turner, A.J.; Young, P.R. (February 1989). "Computing as a discipline". Computer. 22 (2): 63–70. doi:10.1109/2.19833. ISSN 1558-0814. The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information, their theory, analysis, design, efficiency, implementation, and application. The fundamental question underlying all of computing is, 'What can be (efficiently) automated?'
  9. ^ Forsythe, George (August 5–10, 1969). "Computer Science and Education". Proceedings of IFIP Congress 1968. The question 'What can be automated?' is one of the most inspiring philosophical and practical questions of contemporary civilization.
  10. ^ Knuth, Donald E. (August 1, 1972). "George Forsythe and the development of computer science". Communications of the ACM. 15 (8): 721–726. doi:10.1145/361532.361538. ISSN 0001-0782. S2CID 12512057.
  11. ^ Hanson, Vicki L. (January 23, 2017). "Celebrating 50 years of the Turing award". Communications of the ACM. 60 (2): 5. doi:10.1145/3033604. ISSN 0001-0782. S2CID 29984960.
  12. ^ Scott, Eric; Martins, Marcella Scoczynski Ribeiro; Yafrani, Mohamed El; Volz, Vanessa; Wilson, Dennis G (June 5, 2018). "ACM marks 50 years of the ACM A.M. turing award and computing's greatest achievements". ACM SIGEVOlution. 10 (3): 9–11. doi:10.1145/3231560.3231563. S2CID 47021559.

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