Uzbekistan

Coordinates: 42°N 63°E / 42°N 63°E / 42; 63

Republic of Uzbekistan
Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi  (Uzbek)
Anthem: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi
"State Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan"
Location of Uzbekistan (green)
Location of Uzbekistan (green)
Capital
and largest city
Tashkent
41°19′N 69°16′E / 41.317°N 69.267°E / 41.317; 69.267
Official languagesUzbek[1][2]
Recognised regional languagesKarakalpaka
Ethnic groups
(2021[3])
Religion
Demonym(s)
  • Uzbekistani[4]
  • Uzbek
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic[5]
• President
Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Abdulla Aripov
LegislatureOliy Majlis
Senate
Legislative Chamber
Formation
• Uzbek SSR established after national delimitation
27 October 1924
• Declared independence from the Soviet Union
1 September 1991b
• Formally recognised
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
8 December 1992
Area
• Total
448,978 km2 (173,351 sq mi) (56th)
• Water (%)
4.9
Population
• 2022 estimate
35,300,000[6][7] (41st)
• Density
74.1/km2 (191.9/sq mi) (128th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$335.806 billion[8] (53rd)
• Per capita
$9,530[8] (126th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$73.060 billion[8] (78th)
• Per capita
$2,071[8] (151th)
Gini (2013)Positive decrease 36.7[9][10]
medium · 87th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.720[11]
high · 106th
CurrencyUzbek som (UZS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (UZT)
Date formatdd/mm yyyyc
Driving sideright
Calling code+998
ISO 3166 codeUZ
Internet TLD.uz
Website
gov.uz
  1. Co-Official in Karakalpakstan.[1]
  2. On 31 August 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR voted to declare the country independent from the Soviet Union. The next day was declared a national holiday by the Uzbek government, and became Independence Day (Uzbekistan).
  3. dd.mm.yyyy format is used in Cyrillic scripts, including Russian.

Uzbekistan (UK: /ʊzˌbɛkɪˈstɑːn, ʌz-, -ˈstæn/, US: /ʊzˈbɛkɪstæn, -stɑːn/;[12][13] Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston, pronounced [ozbekiˈstɒn]), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. It is surrounded by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the south-west. Its capital and largest city is Tashkent. Uzbekistan is part of the Turkic world, as well as a member of the Organization of Turkic States. The Uzbek language is the majority-spoken language in Uzbekistan, other languages include the Russian language and the Tajik language, on the region of Samarkand and Bukhara. Islam is the predominant religion in Uzbekistan, most Uzbeks being Sunni Muslims.[14]

The first recorded settlers in what is now Uzbekistan were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians, who founded kingdoms in Khwarazm (8th–6th centuries BC), Bactria (8th–6th centuries BC), Sogdia (8th–6th centuries BC), Fergana (3rd century BC – sixth century AD), and Margiana (3rd century BC – sixth century AD).[15] The area was incorporated into the Iranian Achaemenid Empire and, after a period of Macedonian rule, was ruled by the Iranian Parthian Empire and later by the Sasanian Empire, until the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century. The Early Muslim conquests and the subsequent Samanid Empire converted most of the people, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva, and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road, and became a center of the Islamic Golden Age, with figures such as Muhammad al-Bukhari, Al-Tirmidhi, al Khwarizmi, al-Biruni, Avicenna and Omar Khayyam.

The local Khwarazmian dynasty was destroyed by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, leading to a dominance by Turkic peoples. Timur (Tamerlane) who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire was from Shahrisabz and with his capital in Samarkand, which became a centre of science under the rule of Ulugh Beg, giving birth to the Timurid Renaissance. The territories of the Timurid dynasty were conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: the Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand and Emirate of Bukhara. Conquests by Emperor Babur towards the east led to the foundation of India's newest invasions as Mughal Empire. All of Central Asia was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, national delimitation created the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic as an independent republic within the Soviet Union. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991.

Uzbekistan is a secular state, with a presidential constitutional government in place. Uzbekistan comprises 12 regions (vilayats), Tashkent City and one autonomous republic, Karakalpakstan. While non-governmental human rights organisations have defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights",[16][17] significant reforms under Uzbekistan's second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, have been made following the death of the first president, Islam Karimov. Owing to these reforms, relations with the neighbouring countries of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan have drastically improved.[18][19][20][21] A United Nations report of 2020 found much progress toward achieving the UN's Sustainable Development Goals.[22]

The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017, the country's currency became fully convertible at market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. With the gigantic power-generation facilities from the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia.[23] From 2018 to 2021, the republic received a BB- rating by both Standard and Poor (S&P) and Fitch.[24] Strengths indicated by Brookings Institution include Uzbekistan having large liquid assets, high economic growth, and low public debt. Among the constraints holding the republic back is the low GDP per capita.[25] Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, UN and the SCO.

  1. ^ a b "Uzbekistan: Law "On Official Language"". Refworld.
  2. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan". constitution.uz. constitution.uz. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Опубликованы данные об этническом составе населения Узбекистана". The State Statistics Committee. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  4. ^ "Uzbekistan - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Bertelsmann Transformation Index 2006" (PDF). World Development Report 2006. The World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2021. The party system appears stable and moderate, characterized by moderate fragmentation, relatively high polarization, and moderate voter volatility. However, it is not socially rooted. All five registered parties strictly follow the government line. The Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (LDPU) is the dominant party. At the other end of the party spectrum, there are four opposition parties that have consistently been denied registration. Most of the officially registered cooperative associations and interest groups are part of authoritarian corporatist structures.
  6. ^ "Demografiya va mehnat statistikasi (Yanvar - Dekabr, 2020)". Stat.uz. 20 January 2021.
  7. ^ "Население Узбекистана превысило 35 миллионов)". Gazeta.uz (in Russian). 7 September 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d Uzbekistan. International Monetary Fund
  9. ^ "Income Gini coefficient | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  10. ^ "GINI index – Uzbekistan". MECOMeter – Macro Economy Meter. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  11. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  12. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.. This source gives the British pronunciation as /ˌʊzbɛkɪˈstɑːn, ʌz-, -ˈstæn/, rather than /ʊzˌbɛk-/ found in CEPD. It also does not list the /ʊzˈbɛkɪstɑːn/ variant in American English.
  13. ^ Roach, Peter (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.. This source does not list the /-ˈstæn/ pronunciation in British English.
  14. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  15. ^ Uzbek, “the penguin of Turkic languages”.
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference US State Dept - human rights was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan". ksu.uz. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  18. ^ "Eurasia's Latest Economic Reboot Can Be Found In Uzbekistan". Forbes. 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  19. ^ Lillis, Joanna (3 October 2017). "Are decades of political repression making way for an 'Uzbek spring'?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  20. ^ "Uzbekistan: A Quiet Revolution Taking Place – Analysis". Eurasia Review. 8 December 2017. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  21. ^ "The growing ties between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan – CSRS En". CSRS En. 28 January 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  22. ^ "Uzbekistan | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". sdgs.un.org. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  23. ^ "Uzbekistan | Energy 2018 – Global Legal Insights". GLI – Global Legal InsightsUzbekistan | Energy 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  24. ^ "Uzbekistan Sovereign credit ratings - data, chart". TheGlobalEconomy.com. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  25. ^ Daniel Pajank (23 January 2019). "Uzbekistan's star appears in the credit rating universe". brookings.edu. Retrieved 30 December 2019.

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