Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan
Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)
Motto: Türkmenistan Bitaraplygyň watanydyr
"Turkmenistan is the motherland of Neutrality"[1][2]
Anthem: Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni
"National Anthem of Independent Neutral Turkmenistan"
Location of Turkmenistan (red)
Location of Turkmenistan (red)
Capital
and largest city
Ashgabat
37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333
Official languagesTurkmen[3]
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
(2020)
Religion
Demonym(s)Turkmenistani[4]
Turkmen[5]
Turkmenian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic under a totalitarian[6] hereditary dictatorship
• President
Serdar Berdimuhamedow
Raşit Meredow
• Chairman of the People's Council
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
• Chairperson of the Assembly
Gülşat Mämmedowa
LegislatureNational Council[7]
People's Council
Assembly
Independence from Russia and Soviet Union
• Conquest
1879
13 May 1925
• Declared state sovereignty
22 August 1990
• From the Soviet Union
27 October 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
18 May 1992
Area
• Total
491,210 km2 (189,660 sq mi)[8] (52nd)
• Water (%)
4.9
Population
• 2020 estimate
6,031,187[9] (113th)
• Density
10.5/km2 (27.2/sq mi) (221st)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$112.659 billion[10]
• Per capita
$19,526[10]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$42.764 billion[10]
• Per capita
$7,411[10]
Gini (1998)40.8
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.715[11]
high · 111th
CurrencyTurkmenistan manat (TMT)
Time zoneUTC+05 (TMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+993
ISO 3166 codeTM
Internet TLD.tm

Turkmenistan (/tɜːrkˈmɛnɪstæn/ (listen) or /ˌtɜːrkmɛnɪˈstɑːn/ (listen); Turkmen: Türkmenistan, pronounced [tʏɾkmønʏˈθːɑːn][12]), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of the country. The population of the country is about 6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics. Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia. Citizens of Turkmenistan are known as Turkmenistanis (where citizenship and not ethnicity is emphasized),[4] Turkmenians[13] or Turkmens.[5]

The area currently known as Turkmenistan has long served as a thoroughfare for many other nations and cultures.[14] Merv is one of the oldest oasis-cities in Central Asia[15] and was once the biggest city in the world.[16] In medieval times, Merv was also one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1925, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.[4]

Turkmenistan possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas.[17] Most of the country is covered by the Karakum or Black Sand Desert. From 1993 to 2017, citizens received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge.[18]

Turkmenistan is currently an observer state in the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and a member of the United Nations,[19] it's also the only permanent neutral country recognized by the UN General Assembly in Asia.[20]

The country is widely criticized for its poor human rights.[21][22] Notable issues were its treatment of minorities, press freedoms, and religious freedoms. After its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the sovereign state of Turkmenistan has been ruled by three repressive totalitarian regimes. It was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (also known as Türkmenbaşy or "Head of the Turkmens") until his death in 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow became president in 2007 after winning a non-democratic election (he had been vice-president and then acting president previously), and ruled the country until he stepped down in 2022 in favour of his son Serdar, who proceeded to win the presidential election the same year - an election which has been described by several international observers as neither free nor fair.[23][24] The use of the death penalty was suspended in January 1999[25] before being formally abolished in the 2008 constitution.[3]

  1. ^ ""Turkmenistan is the motherland of Neutrality" is the motto of 2020 | Chronicles of Turkmenistan". En.hronikatm.com. 28 December 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Turkmen parliament places Year 2020 under national motto "Turkmenistan – Homeland of Neutrality" – tpetroleum". Turkmenpetroleum.com. 29 December 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Turkmenistan's Constitution of 2008" (PDF).
  4. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference World Factbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b "Dual Citizenship". Ashgabat: U.S. Embassy in Turkmenistan. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Turkmenistan approves new constitution to increase president's powers". PravdaReport. 26 September 2008.
  8. ^ Государственный комитет Туркменистана по статистике : Информация о Туркменистане: О Туркменистане Archived 7 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine : Туркменистан — одна из пяти стран Центральной Азии, вторая среди них по площади (491,21 тысяч км2), расположен в юго-западной части региона в зоне пустынь, севернее хребта Копетдаг Туркмено-Хорасанской горной системы, между Каспийским морем на западе и рекой Амударья на востоке.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". population.un.org.
  10. ^ a b c d "Turkmenistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  11. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  12. ^ Clark, Larry (1998). Turkmen Reference Grammar. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 50.
  13. ^ "Turkmenian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Turkmenistan", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 19 October 2021, retrieved 25 October 2021
  15. ^ "State Historical and Cultural Park "Ancient Merv"". UNESCO-WHC.
  16. ^ Tharoor, Kanishk (2016). "LOST CITIES #5: HOW THE MAGNIFICENT CITY OF MERV WAS RAZED – AND NEVER RECOVERED". The Guardian. Once the world's biggest city, the Silk Road metropolis of Merv in modern Turkmenistan destroyed by Genghis Khan's son and the Mongols in AD1221 with an estimated 700,000 deaths.
  17. ^ "BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019" (PDF). p. 30.
  18. ^ "Turkmen ruler ends free power, gas, water – World News". Hürriyet Daily News.
  19. ^ AA, DAILY SABAH WITH (17 November 2021). "'Turkmenistan's new status in Turkic States significant development'". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  20. ^ "TURKMENISTAN General information". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference flee was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kerry was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ "As Expected, Son Of Turkmen Leader Easily Wins Election In Familial Transfer Of Power". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  24. ^ "Turkmenistan: Autocrat president's son claims landslide win". Deutsche Welle. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  25. ^ "Asia-Pacific – Turkmenistan suspends death penalty". BBC News.

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