Treaty of Gandamak

Mohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan (in the middle) with Britain's Sir Louis Cavagnari 26 May 1879

The Treaty of Gandamak (Dari: معاهده گندمک, Pashto: د گندمک تړون) officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mohammad Yaqub Khan ceded various frontier areas to Britain while retaining full sovereignty over Afghanistan.

The Durand Line (in red and black (see map) above) forms the border between Afghanistan and the British Raj

It was signed on 26 May 1879 by King Mohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan and Sir Louis Cavagnari of British's Government of India at a British army camp near the village of Gandamak, about 70 miles (110 km) east of Kabul. The treaty was ratified by Lord Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton, Viceroy of India, on 30 May 1879.

Most historical writings consider the Treaty of Gandamak as the prelude to the second phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, 1879–1880. As result of the British victory at the Battle of Kandahar in 1880 the treaty was reaffirmed and the British appointed Abdur Rahman as Emir.

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