Taliban

Taliban
طالبان (ṭālibān)
Founders
Leaders
Governing bodyLeadership Council
Dates of operation
HeadquartersKandahar (1994–2001; 2021–present)
Active regionsAfghanistan
Ideology
SizeCore strength -
  • 45,000 (2001 est.)[13]
  • 11,000 (2008 est.)[14]
  • 36,000 (2010 est.)[15]
  • 60,000 (2014 est.)[16]
  • 60,000[17] (2017 est. excluding 90,000 local militia and 50,000 support elements)
  • 75,000 (2021 est.)[18][19][20]
AlliesSubgroups
State allies
Non-state allies
OpponentsState and intergovernmental opponents
Non-state opponents
Battles and wars
Designated as a terrorist group by United Nations[62]
 Canada[63]
 Kazakhstan[64]
 Kyrgyzstan[65]
 Russia[66]
 Tajikistan[67]
 Turkey[68]
 United Arab Emirates[69][70]
Websitealemarahenglish.af

The Taliban (/ˈtælɪbæn, ˈtɑːlɪbɑːn/; Pashto: طالبان, romanized: ṭālibān, lit.'students' or 'seekers'), which also refers to itself by the name of its state, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan,[76][77][a] is a Deobandi Islamic fundamentalist, militant Islamist, and jihadist political movement in Afghanistan.[80] It ruled approximately three-quarters of the country from 1996–2001, before being overthrown following the United States invasion. It recaptured Kabul on 15 August 2021 after years of insurgency, and currently controls all of the country.

The Taliban emerged in 1994 as one of the prominent factions in the Afghan Civil War and largely consisted of students (ṭālib) from the Pashtun areas of eastern and southern Afghanistan who had been educated in traditional Islamic schools (madāris). Under the leadership of Mohammed Omar Mujahid (r. 1996–2001), the movement spread throughout most of Afghanistan, shifting power away from the Mujahideen warlords. In 1996, the group administered roughly three-quarters of the country, and established the First Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, with the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar from Kabul. The Taliban's government was opposed by the Northern Alliance militia, which seized parts of northeast Afghanistan and largely maintained international recognition as a continuation of the interim Islamic State of Afghanistan. The Taliban held control of most of the country until being overthrown after the United States invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001. Subsequently, the Taliban launched an insurgency to fight the United States–backed Karzai administration and the NATO–led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in the War in Afghanistan.

The mass persecutions of Taliban members left the group weakened and many ultimately fled to neighboring Pakistan. In May 2002, exiled members formed the Council of Leaders (Rahbarī Shūrā) based in the city of Quetta. They soon gained strength in the country and reportedly galvanized support from the Government of Pakistan. In 2012, the Taliban unofficially established a political office in Qatar. Under Hìbatullah Akhundzada's leadership, in May 2021, the Taliban began a military offensive, and soon seized control of several areas from the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Following the Fall of Kabul on 15 August 2021, the Taliban regained control of Afghanistan and established the Islamic Emirate once again.

During their rule from 1996 to 2001, the Taliban enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law,[81] and were widely condemned for massacres against Afghan civilians, harsh discrimination against religious and ethnic minorities, denial of UN food supplies to starving civilians, destruction of cultural monuments, banning of females from school and most employment, and prohibition of most music. Following their return to power in 2021, the Afghanistan government budget has lost 80% of its funding, food insecurity is widespread and Taliban leaders urged the United States and other countries to recognize its régime.[82] The Taliban returned Afghanistan to many policies implemented under its previous rule, including requiring women to wear head-to-toe coverings such as the burqa, blocking women from travelling without male guardians, and preventing women from attending school past 6th grade.[83][84][85]

  1. ^ Whine, Michael (1 September 2001). "Islamism and Totalitarianism: Similarities and Differences". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 2 (2): 54–72. doi:10.1080/714005450. S2CID 146940668.
  2. ^ a b Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U. S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001
  3. ^ a b Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8.
  4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Stanford was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Ogata, Sadako N. (2005). The Turbulent Decade: Confronting the Refugee Crises of the 1990s. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-393-05773-7.
  6. ^ McNamara, Melissa (31 August 2006). "The Taliban In Afghanistan". CBS. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Did you know that there are two different Taliban groups?". www.digitaljournal.com. 1 April 2013.
  8. ^ "Taliban – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.
  9. ^ "Afghan Taliban". National Counterterrorism Center. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  10. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000)
  11. ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern? | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  12. ^ "Understanding taliban through the prism of Pashtunwali code". CF2R. 30 November 2013. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  13. ^ "Taliban and the Northern Alliance". US Gov Info. About.com. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  14. ^ 9/11 seven years later: US 'safe,' South Asia in turmoil Archived 10 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  15. ^ Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (3 March 2010). "MajorGeneral Richard Barrons puts Taleban fighter numbers at 36000". The Times. London.
  16. ^ "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  17. ^ "Afghanistan's Security Forces Versus the Taliban: A Net Assessment". Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  18. ^ "Remarks by President Biden on the Drawdown of U.S. Forces in Afghanistan". The White House. 8 July 2021. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  19. ^ "Taliban Sweep in Afghanistan Follows Years of U.S. Miscalculations". The New York Times. 14 August 2021. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  20. ^ "Taliban's Afghanistan takeover raises big questions for U.S. security chiefs". NBC News. 16 August 2021. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  21. ^ "Taliban fought IS with 'limited' US military support, US general reveals". France 24. 10 March 2020.
  22. ^ Sisk, Richard (11 March 2020). "US Has Given 'Limited Support' to Taliban in ISIS Fight, General Says". Military.com.
  23. ^ Clark, Dartunorro; Da Silva, Chantal; Kube, Courtney (28 August 2021). "2 High Profile ISIS Targets Killed in US Drone Strike in Afghanistan, Pentagon Says". NBC News. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  24. ^ Liebermann, Oren; Sidhu, Sandi; Smith-Spark, Laura; Vandoorne, Saskya; Walsh, Nick Paton (30 August 2021). "Nine Family Members, Including Children, Killed in US Strike in Kabul Targeting Suspected IS-K Suicide Bomber, Relative Says". CNN. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  25. ^ Multiple Sources:
  26. ^ Multiple Sources:
  27. ^ Patrikarakos, David (25 August 2021). "Iran is an immediate winner of the Taliban takeover | The Spectator". www.spectator.co.uk.
  28. ^ Multiple Sources:
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference mansouriran was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ Multiple Sources:
  31. ^ Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)
  32. ^ "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support.
  33. ^ Multiple Sources:
  34. ^ a b "Why did Saudi Arabia and Qatar, allies of the US, continue to fund the Taliban after the 2001 war?". scroll.in. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  35. ^ Multiple Sources:
  36. ^ Noorzai, Roshan; Sahinkaya, Ezel; Gul Sarwan, Rahim (3 July 2020). "Afghan Lawmakers: Russian Support to Taliban No Secret". VOA.
  37. ^ "Russian ambassador denies Moscow supporting Taliban". Reuters. 25 April 2016.
  38. ^ Diplomat, Samuel Ramani, The. "What's Behind Saudi Arabia's Turn Away From the Taliban?". The Diplomat.
  39. ^ "Turkmenistan-Foreign Relations". Globalsecurity. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017.
  40. ^ "Turkmenistan Takes a Chance on the Taliban". Stratfor. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  41. ^ Guelke, Adrian (25 August 2006). Terrorism and Global Disorder – Adrian Guelke – Google Libros. ISBN 978-1-85043-803-8. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  42. ^ Katz, Rita. "The Taliban's Victory Is Al Qaeda's Victory".
  43. ^ a b "Watch: in Pakistan Jaish-e-Muhammed & Lashkar-e-taiba rallies to celebrate Taliban takeover in Afghanistan". YouTube. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  44. ^ Roggio, Bill (12 July 2021). "Taliban advances as U.S. completes withdrawal". FDD's Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  45. ^ Tom Wheeldon (18 August 2021). "Pakistan cheers Taliban out of 'fear of India' – despite spillover threat". France 24. The Afghan militants’ closeness to Pakistani jihadist group Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP or, simply, the Pakistani Taliban) is a particular source of concern. The TTP have carried out scores of deadly attacks since their inception in the 2000s, including the infamous 2014 Peshawar school massacre. The Taliban and the TTP are “two faces of the same coin”, Pakistani Army Chief General Qamar Javed Bajwa and ISI boss Lieutenant General Faiz Hameed acknowledged at an off-the-record briefing in July. Indeed, the Taliban reportedly freed a senior TTP commander earlier this month during their sweep through Afghanistan. “Pakistan definitely worries about the galvanising effects the Taliban’s victory will have on other Islamist militants, and especially the TTP, which was already resurging before the Taliban marched into Kabul,” Michael Kugelman, a South Asia expert at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, told FRANCE 24. “It’s a fear across the establishment.” {{cite web}}: External link in |quote= (help)
  46. ^ "Afghan Taliban reject TTP claim of being a 'branch of IEA'". 11 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021."Afghan Taliban deny TTP part of movement, call on group to seek peace with Pakistan". 11 December 2021.
  47. ^ "Afghan militant fighters 'may join Islamic State'". BBC News. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  48. ^ "Afghanistan: Ghani, Hekmatyar sign peace deal". Al Jazeera. 29 September 2016.
  49. ^ "ISIS Violence Dents Taliban Claims Of Safer Afghanistan". NDTV.com. 9 November 2021.
  50. ^ "Why Central Asian states want peace with the Taliban". DW News. 27 March 2018. "Taliban have assured Russia and Central Asian countries that it would not allow any group, including the IMU, to use Afghan soil against any foreign state," Muzhdah said.
  51. ^ Roggio, Bill; Weiss, Caleb (14 June 2016). "Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan faction emerges after group's collapse". Long War Journal. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  52. ^ "Rare look at Afghan National Army's Taliban fight". BBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  53. ^ "Taliban attack NATO base in Afghanistan – Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  54. ^ "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  55. ^ "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". The Khaama Press News Agency. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  56. ^ "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS 'haram'". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  57. ^ "Taliban say gap narrowing in talks with US over Afghanistan troop withdrawal". Military Times. 5 May 2019.
  58. ^ Qazi, Shereena (9 November 2015). "Deadly Taliban infighting erupts in Afghanistan". www.aljazeera.com.
  59. ^ a b "Afghanistan's warlord vice-president spoiling for a fight with the Taliban". The Guardian. 4 August 2015.
  60. ^ Ibrahimi, Niamatullah. 2009. "Divide and Rule: State Penetration in Hazarajat (Afghanistan) from Monarchy to the Taliban", Crisis States Working Papers (Series 2) 42, London: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics
  61. ^ Jonson, Lena (25 August 2006). Tajikistan in the New Central Asia. ISBN 978-1-84511-293-6. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  62. ^ "In Afghanistan, Lest We Forget". 16 August 2021.
  63. ^ "Currently listed entities". Public Safety Canada (published 21 June 2019). 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  64. ^ "The list of prohibited foreign organizations in Kazakhstan". Electronic government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  65. ^ "List of terrorist and extremist organizations banned in Kyrgyzstan". 24.kg. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  66. ^ Единый федеральный список организаций, признанных террористическими Верховным Судом Российской Федерации [Single federal list of organizations recognized as terrorist by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation]. Russian Federation National Anti-Terrorism Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  67. ^ "The list of terrorists and extremists". National Bank of Tajikistan. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  68. ^ Cite error: The named reference bozbas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  69. ^ "43 new designations specifically address threats posed by Qatar linked and based Al Qaida Terrorism Support Networks". Emirates News Agency. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  70. ^ "UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain declare details of new terror designations". Emirates News Agency. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  71. ^ Imtiaz Ali, The Father of the Taliban: An Interview with Maulana Sami ul-Haq , Spotlight on Terror, The Jamestown Foundation, Volume 4, Issue 2, 23 May 2007.
  72. ^ Haroon Rashid (2 October 2003). The 'university of holy war', BBC Online.
  73. ^ Mark Magnier (30 May 2009). Pakistan religious schools get scrutiny, Los Angeles Times.
  74. ^ Tom Hussain (4 August 2015). "Mullah Omar worked as potato vendor to escape detection in Pakistan". McClatchy news. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  75. ^ Gunaratna, Rohan; Iqbal, Khuram (2012), Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero, Reaktion Books, p. 41, ISBN 978-1-78023-009-2
  76. ^ Thomas, Clayton (2 November 2021). "Taliban Government in Afghanistan: Background and Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. p. 10. Retrieved 5 March 2022. The Taliban refer to this government, as they have for decades referred to themselves, as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
  77. ^ Seldin, Jeff (20 March 2022). "How Afghanistan's Militant Groups Are Evolving Under Taliban Rule". Voice of America. Retrieved 19 April 2022. the Taliban movement, which calls itself the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
  78. ^ "Introduction of the newly appointed leader of Islamic Emirate, Mullah Akhtar Mohammad (Mansur), may Allah safeguard hi) | Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan". 4 September 2015. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  79. ^ "Brief Introduction of Members of the Negotiating Team of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan – Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan". Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  80. ^ Bokhari, Kamran; Senzai, Farid, eds. (2013). "Rejector Islamists: Taliban and Nationalist Jihadism". Political Islam in the Age of Democratization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 119–133. doi:10.1057/9781137313492_7. ISBN 978-1-137-31349-2.
  81. ^ Matinuddin 1999, pp. 37, 42–43.
  82. ^ Anderson, Jon Lee (28 February 2022). "The Taliban Confront the Realities of Power". The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  83. ^ Padshah, Safiullah; Goldbaum, Christina (23 March 2022). "Taliban Renege on Promise to Open Afghan Girls' Schools". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  84. ^ "Officials: Taliban blocked unaccompanied women from flights". PBS NewsHour. 26 March 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  85. ^ "The Taliban orders women to wear head-to-toe clothing in public". NPR.org. Retrieved 8 May 2022.


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia · View on Wikipedia

Developed by Nelliwinne