Tajiks

Tajiks
Тоҷикон
تاجيکان
Tajik people.jpg
Tajiks
Total population
18–25 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
Afghanistan9,450,000–11,550,000 (2014)
25%[2]
 Tajikistan6,787,000 (2014)[3]
 Uzbekistan
    
1,420,000 (2012, official)
other, non-official, scholarly estimates are 8 – 11 million[4][5][6]
 Pakistan221,725 (2005)[7]
 Russia201,000[8]
 Kyrgyzstan58,913[9]
 United States52,000[10]
 Kazakhstan50,121[11]
 China39,642[12]
 Canada15,870[13]
 Ukraine4,255[14]
Languages
Persian (Dari and Tajik)
Secondary: Pashto, Russian, Uzbek
Religion
Vast majority Sunni Islam[15]
minority Shia Islam and Sufism[16]
Related ethnic groups
other Iranian peoples

Tajiks (Persian: تاجيک، تاجک, Tājīk, Tājek; Tajik: Тоҷик) are a Persian-speaking[17] Iranian ethnic group native to Central Asia, living primarily in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Tajiks are the largest ethnicity in Tajikistan, and the second-largest in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. They speak varieties of Persian, a Western Iranian language. In Tajikistan, since the 1939 Soviet census, its small Pamiri and Yaghnobi ethnic groups are included as Tajiks.[18] In China, the term is used to refer to its Pamiri ethnic groups, the Tajiks of Xinjiang, who speak the Eastern Iranian Pamiri languages.[19][20] In Afghanistan, the Pamiris are counted as a separate ethnic group.[21]

As a self-designation, the literary New Persian term Tajik, which originally had some previous pejorative usage as a label for eastern Persians or Iranians,[22] has become acceptable during the last several decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia.[17] Alternative names for the Tajiks are Eastern Persian,[22][23] Fārsīwān (Persian-speaker), and Dīhgān (cf. Tajik: Деҳқон) which translates to "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and was later used to describe a class of land-owning magnates as "Persian of noble blood" in contrast to Arabs, Turks and Romans during the Sassanid and early Islamic period.[24][22]

  1. ^ Foltz, Richard (2019). A History of the Tajiks: Iranians of the East. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-1784539559.
  2. ^ Country Factfiles. — Afghanistan, page 153. // Atlas. Fourth Edition. Editors: Ben Hoare, Margaret Parrish. Publisher: Jonathan Metcalf. First published in Great Britain in 2001 by Dorling Kindersley Limited. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2010, 432 pages. ISBN 9781405350396 "Population: 28.1 million
    Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
    Ethnic Mix: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 19%, Uzbek, Turkmen, other 18%"
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA-tj was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Richard Foltz (1996). "The Tajiks of Uzbekistan". Central Asian Survey. 15 (2): 213–216. doi:10.1080/02634939608400946.
  5. ^ Karl Cordell, "Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe", Routledge, 1998. p. 201: "Consequently, the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks is difficult to determine. Tajikis within and outside of the republic, Samarkand State University (SamGU) academic and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30% of the republic's 22 million population, rather than the official figure of 4.7%(Foltz 1996;213; Carlisle 1995:88).
  6. ^ Lena Jonson (1976) "Tajikistan in the New Central Asia", I.B.Tauris, p. 108: "According to official Uzbek statistics there are slightly over 1 million Tajiks in Uzbekistan or about 3% of the population. The unofficial figure is over 6 million Tajiks. They are concentrated in the Sukhandarya, Samarqand and Bukhara regions."
  7. ^ "Census of Afghans in Pakistan 2005" (PDF). UNHCR. 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  8. ^ Russian 2010 Census results; see also Ethnic groups in Russia
  9. ^ "Total population by nationality (assessment at the beginning of the year, people)". Bureau of Statistics of Kyrgyzstan. 2021.
  10. ^ This figure only includes Tajiks from Afghanistan. The population of people from Afghanistan the United States is estimated as 80,414 (2005). United States Census Bureau. "US demographic census". Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2008-01-23. Of this number, approximately 65% are Tajiks according to a group of American researchers (Barbara Robson, Juliene Lipson, Farid Younos, Mariam Mehdi). Robson, Barbara and Lipson, Juliene (2002) "Chapter 5(B)- The People: The Tajiks and Other Dari-Speaking Groups" Archived 2010-01-27 at the Wayback Machine The Afghans – their history and culture Cultural Orientation Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C., OCLC 56081073.
  11. ^ "Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам". stat.gov.kz. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  12. ^ "塔吉克族". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  13. ^ This figure only includes Tajiks from Afghanistan. The population of people with descent from Afghanistan in Canada is 48,090 according to Canada's 2006 Census. Tajiks make up an estimated 27% of the population of Afghanistan. The Tajik population in Canada is estimated from these two figures. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada Archived 2013-07-23 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine – National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  15. ^ "Все новости". Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  16. ^ "Tajikistan". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  17. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth; B.G. Fragner (1999). "TĀDJĪK". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference suny was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Arlund, Pamela S. (2006). An Acoustic, Historical, And Developmental Analysis Of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. PhD Dissertation. The University of Texas at Arlington. p. 191.
  20. ^ Felmy, Sabine (1996). The voice of the nightingale: a personal account of the Wakhi culture in Hunza. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-577599-6.
  21. ^ Minahan, James B. (10 Feb 2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
  22. ^ a b c Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org.
  23. ^ B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Age of Achievement, A.D. 750 to the end of the 15th-century. Excerpt: "...they were the basis for the emergence and gradual consolidation of what became an Eastern Persian-Tajik ethnic identity." pp. 101. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231032110.
  24. ^ M. Longworth Dames; G. Morgenstierne & R. Ghirshman (1999). "AFGHĀNISTĀN". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.

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