Tajikistan

Coordinates: 39°N 71°E / 39°N 71°E / 39; 71

Republic of Tajikistan
  • Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)
    Jumhurii Tojikiston
  • Республика Таджикистан (Russian)
    Respublika Tadzhikistan
Motto: 
Истиқлол, Озодӣ, Ватан (Tajik)
Istiqlol, Ozodī, Vatan
"Independence, Freedom, Homeland"
Anthem: 
Суруди Миллӣ (Tajik)
Surudi Millī
"National Anthem"
Location of Tajikistan (green)
Location of Tajikistan (green)
Capital
and largest city
Dushanbe
38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.550°N 68.800°E / 38.550; 68.800
Official languagesTajik (state) • Russian (official)[1]
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
(2010[2])
Religion
Demonym(s)Tajikistani[4]
Tajik[5]
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic under a dictatorship[6]
• President
Emomali Rahmon
Kokhir Rasulzoda
LegislatureSupreme Assembly
National Assembly
Assembly of Representatives
Formation
819
27 October 1924
5 December 1929
• Independence from the USSR
9 September 1991
21 December 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
• Admitted to the UN
2 March 1992
6 November 1994
Area
• Total
143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi)[7][8][9] (94th)
• Water (%)
1.8
Population
• 2020 estimate
9,537,645[10] (96th[11])
• Density
48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$30.547 billion[12] (132nd)
• Per capita
$3,354[12] (155th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$7.350 billion[12] (147th)
• Per capita
$807[12] (164th)
Gini (2015)34[13]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.668[14]
medium · 125th
CurrencySomoni (TJS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (TJT)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+992
ISO 3166 codeTJ
Internet TLD.tj
  1. Russian has the status of an official language through its use as the official interethnic language as cited in the Constitution of Tajikistan.[15]

Tajikistan (/tɑːˈkɪstɑːn/ (listen), /tə-, tæ-/; Tajik: Тоҷикистон, romanizedTojikiston; Russian: Таджикистан, romanizedTadzhikistan), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, romanizedJumhurii Tojikiston), is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It has an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi)[7][8][9] and an estimated population of 9,537,645 people.[16] Its capital and largest city is Dushanbe. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north and China to the east. It is separated narrowly from Pakistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm[17] of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus Valley Civilisation, Andronovo Culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire and the Mongol Empire. After being ruled by the Timurid dynasty and the Khanate of Bukhara, the Timurid Renaissance flourished. The region was later conquered by the Russian Empire and subsequently by the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.[18]

On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation as the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. The country has been led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, who rules an authoritarian regime. There is extensive corruption and widespread violations of human rights, including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, worsening political repression, and a lack of religious freedom and other civil liberties.[19][20]

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group,[21] who speak the Tajik language — the first official language — making it one of the three Persian speaking countries alongside Afghanistan and Iran. Russian is used as the official inter-ethnic language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan oblast, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It is a developing country with a transitional economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as a NATO PfP partner.

  1. ^ Constitution of Tajikistan
  2. ^ Национальный состав, владение языками и гражданство населения Республики Таджикистан Том III. stat.tj
  3. ^ "Central Intelligence Agency". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  4. ^ "Tajikistan – World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  5. ^ M. A., Geography; B. A., Geography. "Ever Wonder What Residents of a Particular Country Are Called?". ThoughtCo.
  6. ^ "Democracy Index 2020". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  7. ^ a b "General information". Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan to France. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2020. Territorу – 143.1 thsd. square kilometers
  8. ^ a b "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2012: 6. Retrieved 29 January 2020. Continent, country or area{...}Surface area Superficie (km²) 2012{...}Tajikistan – Tadjikistan{...}143 100 {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ a b Alex Sodiqov (24 January 2011). "Tajikistan cedes disputed land to China". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 8 (16). Retrieved 23 September 2018. On January 12, the lower house of the Tajik parliament voted to ratify the 2002 border demarcation agreement, handing over 1,122 square kilometers (433 square miles) of mountainous land in the remote Pamir Mountains (www.asiaplus.tj, January 12). The ceded land represents about 0.8 percent of the country's total area of 143,100 square kilometers (55,250 square miles).
  10. ^ "Tajikistan Population (2020) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info.
  11. ^ "Population by Country (2020) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info.
  12. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  13. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". databank.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  14. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  15. ^ "КОНСТИТУЦИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ ТАДЖИКИСТАН". prokuratura.tj. Parliament of Tajikistan. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Tajikistan Population (2021) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info.
  17. ^ "Proto-urban Site of Sarazm". UNESCO.org. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  18. ^ Bergne, Paul (2007) The Birth of Tajikistan: National Identity and the Origins of the Republic, IB Taurus & Co Ltd, pg. 39–40
  19. ^ "World Report 2019: Rights Trends in Tajikistan". Human Rights Watch. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  20. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Tajikistan's eternal ruler Emomali Rakhmon | DW | 12.10.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  21. ^ "Tajikistan Ethnic groups – Demographics". www.indexmundi.com.

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