Qatar

Coordinates: 25°30′N 51°15′E / 25.500°N 51.250°E / 25.500; 51.250

State of Qatar
دولة قطر (Arabic)
Dawlat Qaṭar
Motto: الله الوطن الأمير
God, Nation, Emir
Anthem: السلام الأميري
As-Salām al-ʾAmīrī  (transliteration)
"Peace to the Emir"
Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula
Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula
Capital
and largest city
Doha
25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.300°N 51.517°E / 25.300; 51.517
Official languagesArabic[1]
Common languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2015)[2]
Religion
(2020)[3]
Demonym(s)Qatari
GovernmentUnitary Islamic parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• Emir
Tamim bin Hamad
Khalid bin Khalifa
LegislatureConsultative Assembly
Establishment
18 December 1878
• Declared independence

1 September 1971
• Independence from the United Kingdom

3 September 1971
Area
• Total
11,581 km2 (4,471 sq mi) (158th)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2020 estimate
2,795,484[4] (139th)
• 2010 census
1,699,435[5]
• Density
176/km2 (455.8/sq mi) (76th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$315.299 billion[6] (51st)
• Per capita
$112,789[6] (4th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$236.257 billion[6] (56th)
• Per capita
$84,514[6] (6th)
Gini (2007)41.1[7]
medium
HDI (2019)Steady 0.848[8]
very high · 45th
CurrencyQatari riyal (QAR)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright[9]
Calling code+974
ISO 3166 codeQA
Internet TLD

Qatar (/ˈkætɑːr/,[10] /ˈkɑːtɑːr/ (listen), /ˈkɑːtər/ or /kəˈtɑːr/ (listen);[11] Arabic: قطر, romanizedQaṭar [ˈqatˤar]; local vernacular pronunciation: [ˈɡɪtˤɑr]),[12][13] officially the State of Qatar,[a] is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares its sole land border with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an inlet of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from nearby Bahrain. The capital is Doha, home to over 80% of the nation's population.

Qatar has been ruled as a hereditary monarchy by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. The current emir is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, who holds nearly all executive and legislative authority under the Constitution of Qatar, as well as controlling the judiciary.[14] He appoints the prime minister and cabinet. The partially-elected Consultative Assembly can block legislation and has a limited ability to dismiss ministers.

In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates.[15] Its official religion is Islam.[16] In terms of income, the country has the fourth-highest GDP (PPP) per capita in the world,[17] and the sixth-highest GNI per capita (Atlas method).[18] Qatar has the third-highest HDI in the Arab world.[19] It is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.[20] Qatar is the world's largest exporter of liquefied natural gas,[21] and the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide per capita.[22]

In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a middle power in the Arab world through its resource-wealth,[23][24] as well as its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring.[25][26][27] Qatar's human rights record has been regarded by academics and non-governmental organisations as being generally poor, with restrictions on civil liberties such as the freedoms of assocation, expression and the press, as well as its treatment of thousands of migrant workers amounting to forced labour for projects in the country.[28][29] The 2022 FIFA World Cup was awarded to Qatar under controversial circumstances, making it the first Muslim country in the Arab world to host the event.[30] Qatar hosted the 2006 Asian Games, and will also host the 2030 Asian Games.[31]

  1. ^ "The Constitution" (PDF). Government Communications Office. Government Communications Office. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Population By Religion, Gender And Municipality March 2020". Qatar Statistics Authority.
  4. ^ "Population structure". Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics. 31 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Populations". Qsa.gov.qa. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2018 – Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund (IMF). April 2018. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018.
  7. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  8. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  9. ^ "List of left- & right-driving countries – World Standards". Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  10. ^ Pronunciation adopted by Qatar Airways' advertisements, such as Qatar Airways: the Art of Flight Redefined
  11. ^ "CMU Pronouncing Dictionary". CS. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  12. ^ Johnstone, T. M. (2008). "Encyclopaedia of Islam". Ķaṭar. Brill Online. Retrieved 22 January 2013. (subscription required)
  13. ^ "How do you say 'Qatar'? Senate hearing has the answer". Washington Post. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Qatar: Freedom in the World 2020 Country Report". Freedom House. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  15. ^ "Population of Qatar by nationality – 2017 report". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  16. ^ "The Constitution". Archived from the original on 24 October 2004. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  17. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  18. ^ "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  19. ^ "2019 Human Development Index Ranking | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  20. ^ "Indices & Data | Human Development Reports". United Nations Development Programme. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  21. ^ England, Andrew (24 October 2021). "Qatar calls for embrace of gas producers for energy transition". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  22. ^ "Where in the world do people emit the most CO2?". Our World in Data. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  23. ^ Cooper, Andrew F. "Middle Powers: Squeezed out or Adaptive?". Public Diplomacy Magazine. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  24. ^ Kamrava, Mehran. "Mediation and Qatari Foreign Policy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  25. ^ Dagher, Sam (17 October 2011). "Tiny Kingdom's Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  26. ^ "Qatar: Rise of an Underdog". Politicsandpolicy.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  27. ^ Black, Ian (26 October 2011). "Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "Qatar". Amnesty International. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  29. ^ "Qatar". Human Rights Watch. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  30. ^ "Amir: 2022 World Cup Qatar a tournament for all Arabs". Gulf Times. 15 July 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Doha to host 2030 Asian Games as Riyadh gets 2034 edition". sportspromedia.com. 17 December 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2021.


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