Opium pod cut to demonstrate fluid extraction1.jpg
Opium poppy seed pod exuding latex from a cut
Source plant(s)Papaver somniferum
Part(s) of plantLatex
Geographic originUncertain, possibly Asia Minor,[1] or Spain, southern France and northwestern Africa[2]
Active ingredients
Main producers
Main consumersWorldwide (#1: Europe)[3]
Wholesale priceUS$3,000 per kilogram (as of 2002)[4][needs update]
Retail priceUS$16,000 per kilogram (as of 2002)[4][needs update]
Legal status

Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.[5] Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for the illegal drug trade. The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. The traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch ("score") the immature seed pods (fruits) by hand; the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky yellowish residue that is later scraped off and dehydrated. The word meconium (derived from the Greek for "opium-like", but now used to refer to newborn stools) historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies.[6]

The production methods have not significantly changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, codeine, and to a lesser extent thebaine has been greatly increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which often serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum.

For the illegal drug trade, the morphine is extracted from the opium latex, reducing the bulk weight by 88%. It is then converted to heroin which is almost twice as potent,[7] and increases the value by a similar factor. The reduced weight and bulk make it easier to smuggle.[8]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schiff was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Professor Arthur C. Gibson. "The Pernicious Opium Poppy". University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  3. ^ "The Global Heroin Market" (PDF). October 2014.
  4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 2002abc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Opium definition". Drugs.com. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
  6. ^ Simon O'Dochartaigh. "HON Mother & Child Glossary, Meconium". hon.ch. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  7. ^ Sawynok J (January 1986). "The therapeutic use of heroin: a review of the pharmacological literature". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 64 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1139/y86-001. PMID 2420426.
  8. ^ "Opium (Drugs / Substance Abuse) - UrbanAreas.net". UrbanAreas.net. Retrieved January 25, 2017.

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