List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Largest economies in the world by GDP (Nominal) in 2022
according to International Monetary Fund estimates[1]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[n 1]
  > $20 trillion
  $10–20 trillion
  $5–10 trillion
  $1–5 trillion
  $750 billion – $1 trillion
  $500–750 billion
  $250–500 billion
  $100–250 billion
  $50–100 billion
  $25–50 billion
  $5–25 billion
  < $5 billion

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. Other metrics, nominal GDP per capita and a corresponding GDP (PPP) per capita are used for comparing national standard of living. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[5]

The rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States surpassed the British Empire's output around 1916,[6] which in turn had surpassed the Qing dynasty in aggregate output decades earlier.[7][8] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[9][10] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978, to second in 2016; China's economic growth accelerated during this period and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[8][1] Among others, India has also experienced an economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[11]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, Palestine, and Taiwan) are included in the list where they appear in the sources.

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference GDP IMF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  6. ^ Frum, David (24 December 2014). "The Real Story of How America Became an Economic Superpower". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  7. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  8. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190239053.
  9. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  10. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  11. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.


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