Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  • جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (Dari)
  • Jumhūrī-yi Islāmī-yi Afġānistān
  • د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت (Pashto)
  • Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat
Motto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله
"Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh"
"There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." (Shahada)
Qal’a-ye Islām, qalb-e Āsiyā
قلعه اسلام قلب اسیا
("Fortress of Islam, Heart of Asia")
Millī Sūrud
سرود ملی
("National Anthem")
Afghanistan (orthographic projection).svg
and largest city
33°N 66°E / 33°N 66°E / 33; 66Coordinates: 33°N 66°E / 33°N 66°E / 33; 66
Common languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential Islamic republic
• 2004–2014
Hamid Karzai
• 2014–2021
Ashraf Ghani
Chief Executive 
• 2014–2020
Abdullah Abdullah
Vice President[b] 
• 2004–2009
Ahmad Zia Massoud
• 2004–2014
Karim Khalili
• 2009–2014
Mohammed Fahim
• 2014[c]
Yunus Qanuni
• 2014–2020
Abdul Rashid Dostum
• 2014–2021
Sarwar Danish
• 2020–2021
Amrullah Saleh
LegislatureNational Assembly
House of Elders
House of the People
Historical eraWar on Terror
7 October 2001
26 January 2004
29 February 2020
15 August 2021
30 August 2021
6 September 2021
• Water (%)
2020[6]652,864 km2 (252,072 sq mi)
• 2020[7]
• Density
48.08/km2 (124.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
HDI (2019)0.511
CurrencyAfghani (افغانی) (AFN)
Time zoneUTC+4:30 Solar Calendar (D†)
Driving sideright
Calling code+93
Internet افغانستان.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was a presidential republic that ruled Afghanistan from 2004 to 2021. The state was established to replace the Afghan interim (2001–2002) and transitional (2002–2004) administrations, which were formed after the 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan that had toppled the partially recognized Taliban-ruled Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. However, on 15 August 2021, the country was recaptured by the Taliban, which marked the end of the 2001–2021 war, the longest war in US history.[9] This led to the overthrowing of the Islamic Republic under President Ashraf Ghani and reinstating the Islamic Emirate under the control of the Taliban. The US–Taliban deal, signed on 29 February 2020 in Qatar, was one of the critical events that caused the collapse of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).[10] Following the deal, the US dramatically reduced the number of air attacks and deprived the ANSF of a critical edge in fighting the Taliban insurgency, leading to the Taliban takeover of Kabul.[11] Soon after, former first vice president Amrullah Saleh declared himself the caretaker president of Afghanistan and announced the republican resistance against the Taliban.[12][13]

Following the September 11 attacks, the United States and several allies invaded Afghanistan, overthrowing the Taliban's first government (which had limited recognition) in support of the opposition Northern Alliance. Afterwards, a transitional government was formed under the leadership of Hamid Karzai. After the 2003 loya jirga, a unitary presidential Islamic republic was proclaimed under a new constitution, and Karzai was elected for a full term as president. Meanwhile, the US-led international coalition helped maintain internal security, gradually transferring the burden of defense to the Afghan Armed Forces after 2013–14.

However, Taliban forces held control of various areas of the country and the civil war continued. The Taliban regrouped as an insurgency with the alleged support of Pakistan, and escalated attacks on Afghan and coalition forces after 2006–07. This perpetuated Afghanistan's problematic human rights and women's rights records, with numerous abuses committed by both sides, such as the killing of civilians, kidnapping, and torture. Due to the government's extensive reliance on American military and economic aid, some classed the nation as an American client state, and it gradually lost control of the rural countryside after the conclusion of Operation Enduring Freedom.[14]

Following the withdrawal of NATO troops in 2021, the Taliban launched a massive military offensive in May 2021, allowing them to take control of the country over the following three and a half months. The Afghan Armed Forces rapidly disintegrated. The institutions of the republic effectively collapsed on 15 August 2021, when the Taliban forces entered Kabul and Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fled the country. On the same day, Amrullah Saleh – citing provisions of the Constitution of Afghanistan – declared himself caretaker President of Afghanistan and continued to claim to be the sole legitimate government representative of Afghanistan from the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan base of operations in the Panjshir Valley, and vowed to continue military operations against the Taliban from there.[15][12][16] On 6 September, as the Panjshir Valley reportedly fell to the Taliban, Ahmad Massoud went into hiding at a safe location, while Saleh is believed to have fled to Tajikistan.[17] However, Mohammad Zahir Aghbar, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan's ambassador to Tajikistan, disputed these reports.[18]

  1. ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. (Retrieved 13 November 2007).
  3. ^ WordNet 3.0. Princeton University. (Retrieved 13 November 2007). Archived 28 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  5. ^ Afghan | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. the Cambridge English Dictionary. ISBN 9781107660151.
  6. ^ Central Statistics Office Afghanistan
  7. ^ Central Statistics Office Afghanistan, 2020.
  8. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
  9. ^ Watkins, Andrew H. (November 2021). Cruickshank, Paul; Hummel, Kristina (eds.). "An Assessment of Taliban Rule at Three Months" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. West Point, New York: Combating Terrorism Center. 14 (9): 1–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  10. ^ Borger, Julian (18 May 2022). "US withdrawal triggered catastrophic defeat of Afghan forces, damning watchdog report finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  11. ^ "US withdrawal prompted collapse of Afghan army: Report". Al Jazeera. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  12. ^ a b "Afghan vice president says he is "caretaker" president". 17 August 2021. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  13. ^ "An anti-Taliban front forming in Panjshir? Ex top spy Saleh, son of 'Lion of Panjshir' meet at citadel". The Week. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  14. ^ Ladwig, Walter C. (2017). The Forgotten Front: Patron-Client Relationships in Counter Insurgency. Cambridge University Press. p. 302. ISBN 9781107170773. Retrieved 15 May 2018. As with their Cold War counterparts, it was erroneous for American policymakers to believe that the governments of contemporary client states, such as Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, necessarily shared their desire to defeat radical Islamic insurgents by adhering to the prescriptions of U.S. counterinsurgency doctrine.
  15. ^ "Panjshir flies flag of resistance again; Amrullah says he is President of Afghanistan". Tribune India. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  16. ^ "Exiled Taliban leaders return to take charge of Afghanistan". BBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  17. ^ Pirnazarov, Nazarali; Balmforth, Tom (8 September 2021). "Resistance leaders Massoud, Saleh still in Afghanistan, diplomat says". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference wpsep06 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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