Iran

Coordinates: 32°N 53°E / 32°N 53°E / 32; 53

Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران (Persian)
Jomhuri-ye Eslâmi-ye Irân
Motto: 
استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی
Esteqlâl, Âzâdi, Jomhuri-ye Eslâmi
("Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic")
(de facto)[1]
Anthem: سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Sorud-e Melli-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslâmi-ye Irân
("National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran")
Location of Iran
Capital
and largest city
Tehran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
Official languagesPersian
Recognised regional languages
List of languages
Ethnic groups
List of ethnicities
Religion
See Religion in Iran
Demonym(s)
  • Iranian
GovernmentUnitary Khomeinist theocratic presidential Islamic republic
Ali Khamenei
• President
Ebrahim Raisi
Mohammad Mokhber
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
LegislatureIslamic Consultative Assembly
Establishment history
c. 678 BC
550 BC
247 BC
224 AD[4]
934
1501[5]
1736
1751
1796
15 December 1925
11 February 1979
3 December 1979
28 July 1989
Area
• Total
1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) (17th)
• Water (%)
1.63 (as of 2015)[6]
Population
• 2019 estimate
Neutral increase 83,183,741[7] (17th)
• Density
48/km2 (124.3/sq mi) (162nd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.573 trillion[8] (21st)
• Per capita
Increase $18,332[8] (66th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.739 trillion[8] (14th)
• Per capita
Increase $20,261[8] (78th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 42.0[9]
medium
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.783[10]
high · 70th
CurrencyIranian rial (ریال) (IRR)
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Date formatyyyy/mm/dd (SH)
Driving sideright
Calling code+98
ISO 3166 codeIR
Internet TLD

Iran (Persian: ایران Irân [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] (listen)), also called Persia,[11] and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran,[a] is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Iraq and Turkey to the west, by Azerbaijan and Armenia to the northwest, by the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, by Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south. It covers an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the fourth-largest country entirely in Asia and the second-largest country in Western Asia behind Saudi Arabia. Iran has a population of 85 million, making it the 17th-most populous country in the world.[12] Its largest cities, in descending order, are the capital Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Karaj, Shiraz, and Tabriz.

The country is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations,[13][14] beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC. It was first unified by the Medes, an ancient Iranian people, in the seventh century BC,[15] and reached its territorial height in the sixth century BC, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire, which became one of the largest empires in history and has been described as the world's first effective superpower.[16] The Achaemenid Empire fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC and was subsequently divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BC, which was succeeded in the third century AD by the Sassanid Empire, a major world power for the next four centuries.[17][18] Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century AD, which led to the Islamization of Iran. It subsequently became a major center of Islamic culture and learning, with its art, literature, philosophy, and architecture spreading across the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age. Over the next two centuries, a series of native Iranian Muslim dynasties emerged before the Seljuk Turks and the Mongols conquered the region. In the 15th century, the native Safavids re-established a unified Iranian state and national identity,[4] and converted the country to Shia Islam.[5][19] Under the reign of Nader Shah in the 18th century, Iran once again became a major world power,[20] though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.[21][22] The early 20th century saw the Persian Constitutional Revolution. Efforts to nationalize its fossil fuel supply from Western companies led to an Anglo-American coup in 1953, which resulted in greater autocratic rule under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and growing Western political influence.[23] He went on to launch a far-reaching series of reforms in 1963.[24] After the Iranian Revolution, the current Islamic Republic was established in 1979[25] by Ruhollah Khomeini, who became the country's first Supreme Leader.

The government of Iran is an Islamic theocracy that includes elements of a presidential democracy, with the ultimate authority vested in an autocratic "Supreme Leader";[26] a position held by Ali Khamenei since Khomeini's death in 1989. The Iranian government is widely considered to be authoritarian, and has attracted widespread criticism for its significant constraints and abuses against human rights and civil liberties,[27][28][29][30] including several violent suppressions of mass protests, unfair elections, and limited rights for women and for children. It is also a focal point for Shia Islam within the Middle East, countering the long-existing Arab and Sunni hegemony within the region. Since the Iranian Revolution, the country is widely considered to be the largest adversary of Israel and also of Saudi Arabia. Iran is also considered to be one of the biggest players within Middle Eastern affairs, with its government being involved both directly and indirectly in the majority of modern Middle Eastern conflicts.

Iran is a regional and middle power, with a geopolitically strategic location in the Asian continent.[31] It is a founding member of the United Nations, the ECO, the OIC, and the OPEC. It has large reserves of fossil fuels—including the second-largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves.[32] The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 26 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[33] Historically a multi-ethnic country, Iran remains a pluralistic society comprising numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, with the largest of these being Persians, Azeris, Kurds, Mazandaranis, and Lurs.[3]

  1. ^ Jeroen Temperman (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. Brill. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-90-04-18148-9. The official motto of Iran is Takbir ('God is the Greatest' or 'God is Great'). Transliteration Allahu Akbar. As referred to in art. 18 of the constitution of Iran (1979). The de facto motto however is: 'Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic.'
  2. ^ "Iran – Languages". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Iran". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  4. ^ a b Sarkhosh Curtis, Vesta; Stewart, Sarah (2005), Birth of the Persian Empire: The Idea of Iran, London: I.B. Tauris, p. 108, ISBN 978-1-84511-062-8, Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name 'Iran' disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or 'Iranian lands', which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.
  5. ^ a b Andrew J. Newman (2006). Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-667-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ "داده‌ها و اطلاعات آماری". www.amar.org.ir. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  9. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". Data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  10. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  11. ^ A. Fishman, Joshua (2010). Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: Disciplinary and Regional Perspectives (Volume 1). Oxford University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-19-537492-6. " "Iran" and "Persia" are synonymous" The former has always been used by the Iranian speaking peoples themselves, while the latter has served as the international name of the country in various languages
  12. ^ "Iran Population (2021) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  13. ^ Whatley, Christopher (2001). Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of 1707. Tuckwell Press.
  14. ^ Lowell Barrington (2012). Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices, 2nd ed.tr: Structures and Choices. Cengage Learning. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-111-34193-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopedia Article: Media ancient region, Iran". Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  16. ^ David Sacks; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the right portion of the page). ISBN 978-0-8160-5722-1. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  17. ^ Stillman, Norman A. (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands. Jewish Publication Society. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8276-1155-9.
  18. ^ Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haarer, Fiona K. (2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21–26 August, 2006, Volume 1. Ashgate Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7546-5740-8.
  19. ^ Savory, R. M. "Safavids". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.).
  20. ^ Axworthy, Michael (2006). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. I.B. Tauris. pp. xv, 284. ISBN 978-0-85772-193-8.
  21. ^ Fisher et al. 1991, pp. 329–330.
  22. ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. pp. 728–730. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6.
  23. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (1999). Iran's Military Forces in Transition: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-275-96529-7.
  24. ^ Graham, Robert (1980). Iran: The Illusion of Power. London: St. Martin's Press. pp. 19, 96. ISBN 978-0-312-43588-2.
  25. ^ "Iran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  26. ^ قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران (in Persian). Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
  27. ^ "2018 will go down in history as a year of shame for Iran". www.amnesty.org. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Nasrin Sotoudeh sentenced to 33 years and 148 lashes in Iran". www.amnesty.org. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  29. ^ "Women's Rights in Iran". Human Rights Watch. 28 October 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  30. ^ "Iran". freedomhouse.org. 30 January 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  31. ^ "Iran's Strategy in the Strait of Hormuz". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  32. ^ "Iran's president: New oil field found with over 50B barrels". AP NEWS. 10 November 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  33. ^ "World Heritage List". UNESCO.


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