Hotak dynasty

Hotak Empire
امپراتوری هوتکیان
د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني
Flag of Hotak Empire
Hotak Empire at its greatest extent
Hotak Empire at its greatest extent
CapitalKandahar (1709–1722), (1725–1738)
Isfahan (1722–1729)
Common languagesPashto and Persian (poetry)[a][1]
Sunni Islam
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
• 1709–1715
Mirwais Hotak
• 1715–1717
Abdul Aziz Hotak
• 1717–1725
Mahmud Hotak
• 1725–1730
Ashraf Hotak
• 1725–1738
Hussain Hotak
Historical eraEarly modern period
21 April 1709
24 March 1738
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Safavid Iran
Mughal Empire
Afsharid Iran

The Hotak dynasty (Pashto: د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني Persian: امپراتوری هوتکیان) was an Afghan monarchy founded by Ghilji Pashtuns that briefly ruled portions of Iran and Afghanistan during the 1720s.[2][3] It was established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak, who led a successful revolution against the declining Persian Safavid empire in the region of Loy Kandahar("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.[2]

In 1715, Mirwais died of natural causes and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded him. He did not reign long as he was killed by his nephew Mahmud, who deposed the Safavid shah and proclaimed his own rule over Iran. Mahmud in turn was succeeded by his cousin Ashraf following a palace coup in 1725. Ashraf, however, did not retain his throne for long, as the Iranian conqueror Nader-Qoli Beg (later Shah), leading the resurgent Safavid banner, defeated him at the Battle of Damghan of 1729. Ashraf Hotak was banished to what is now southern Afghanistan, confining Hotak rule to a small corner of their former empire. In 1738, Hotak rule ended when Nader Shah defeated Ashraf's successor Hussain Hotak after a lengthy siege of Kandahar. Subsequently, Nader Shah began re-establishing Iranian suzerainty over regions lost decades before to Iran's archrivals—the Ottoman and Russian Empires.[4]

  1. ^ a b Bausani 1971, p. 63.
  2. ^ a b Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 188. London: p. 227. ISBN 1402172788. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  3. ^ Ewans, Martin; Sir Martin Ewans (2002). Afghanistan: a short history of its people and politics. New York: Perennial. p. 30. ISBN 0060505087. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  4. ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 33. Retrieved 2010-09-24.

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