History of Afghanistan

Present-day location of Afghanistan in Asia

The history of Afghanistan as a state began in 1823 as the Emirate of Afghanistan after the fall of the predecessor, the Afghan Durrani Empire, considered the founding state of modern Afghanistan.[1] The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Afghanistan can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire,[2] although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE.[3][4][5] Bactria dates back to 2500 BCE.[6] The Indus Valley civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north.[7] Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire during the Battle of Gaugamela.[8] Since then, many empires have established capitals in Afghanistan, including the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Indo-Sassanids, Kabul Shahi, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids, Hotakis and Durranis.[9]

Afghanistan (meaning "land of the Afghans" or "Afghan land") has been a strategically important location throughout history.[10] The land served as " a center of the ancient Silk Road in central Asia, a gateway to Indian subcontinent, connecting China to western Asia and Europe, which carried trade from the Mediterranean to China".[11] Sitting on many trade and migration routes, Afghanistan may be called the 'Central Asian roundabout'[12] since routes converge from the Middle East, from the Indus Valley through the passes over the Hindu Kush, from the Far East via the Tarim Basin, and from the adjacent Eurasian Steppe.

The Iranian languages were developed by one branch of these people; the Pashto language spoken today in Afghanistan by the ethnic Pashtuns, is one of the Eastern Iranian languages. Elena E. Kuz'mina argues that the tents of Iranic-speaking nomads of Afghanistan developed from the light surface houses of the Eurasian steppe belt in the Bronze Age.[13]

Mirwais Hotak followed Ahmad Shah Durrani unified Afghanistan's tribes such as Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks and Turkmens under one banner and founded the last Afghan Empire in the early 18th century CE.[14][15][16][17][excessive citations] Afghanistan is inhabited by many and diverse peoples: the Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Turkmen, Qizilbash, Aimak, Pashayi, Baloch, Pamiris, Nuristanis, and others.

  1. ^ Rahimi, Mukiib Rahman. State Formation in Afghanistan: A Theoretical and Political History. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017.[ISBN missing][page needed]
  2. ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). United States: Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-08. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  3. ^ "Afghanistan: The Pre-Islamic Period". United States. 1997. Archived from the original on 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  4. ^ Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977). An Historical Guide To Afghanistan (Chapter 3: Sites in Perspective) (2 ed.). United States: Afghan Air Authority, Afghan Tourist Organization. p. 492. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
  5. ^ Shroder, John Ford (2006). "Afghanistan". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
  6. ^ "Bactria | Definition, Location, & Kingdom". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  7. ^ Wright, Rita P. (2009). The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780521576529.
  8. ^ "Alexander and Macedonian Rule, 330 – ca. 150 B.C." United States: Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
  9. ^ "Kingdoms of South Asia – Afghanistan (Southern Khorasan / Arachosia)". The History Files. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  10. ^ Banting, Erinn (2003). Afghanistan: The land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
  11. ^ Adamec, Ludwig W. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8108-7957-7. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
  12. ^ Afghanistan Beyond the Fog of Nation Building: Giving Economic Strategy a Chance. S. Frederick Starr "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-08. Retrieved 2012-06-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ Elena E. Kuz'mina, The Origin of the Indo-Iranians (Leiden and Boston:Brill 2007), p. 62.
  14. ^ Parkes, Aidan (2018-04-27). "Trials of the Past: A Theoretical Approach to State Centralisation in Afghanistan". History and Sociology of South Asia. Sage Publications. 12 (2): 149–59. doi:10.1177/2230807518767710. ISSN 2230-8075. S2CID 158800766.
  15. ^ "Last Afghan empire". Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree, and others. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  16. ^ "Last Afghan Empire". Afghanpedia. Sabawoon.com. Archived from the original on 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  17. ^ D. Balland. "Afghanistan x. Political History". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-08-22.

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