Hindu Kush

Coordinates: 35°N 71°E / 35°N 71°E / 35; 71

Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
The Hindu Kush mountains at the Afghanistan-Pakistan border
Highest point
PeakTirich Mir (Pakistan)
Elevation7,708 m (25,289 ft)
Coordinates36°14′45″N 71°50′38″E / 36.24583°N 71.84389°E / 36.24583; 71.84389
Geography
Approximate Hindu Kush range with Dorah Pass.png
Topography of the Hindu Kush range[1]
CountriesAfghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan
RegionSouth-Central Asia
Parent rangeHimalayas
Hindu Kush (top right) and its extending mountain ranges like Selseleh-ye Safīd Kūh or Koh-i-Baba to the west

The Hindu Kush is an 800-kilometre-long (500 mi) mountain range in Central and South Asia to the west of the Himalayas. It stretches from central and western Afghanistan[2][3] into northwestern Pakistan and far southeastern Tajikistan. The range forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region (HKH);[4][5][6] to the north, near its northeastern end, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan near their border.[2] The eastern end of the Hindu Kush in the north merges with the Karakoram Range.[7][8] Towards its southern end, it connects with the Spin Ghar Range near the Kabul River.[9][10] It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. The range has numerous high snow-capped peaks, with the highest point being Tirich Mir or Terichmir at 7,708 metres (25,289 ft) in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The Hindu Kush range region was a historically significant centre of Buddhism, with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas.[11][12] The range and communities settled in it hosted ancient monasteries, important trade networks and travellers between Central Asia and South Asia.[13][14] While the vast majority of the region has had a Muslim majority for several centuries now, certain portions of the Hindu Kush only became Islamized relatively recently, such as Kafiristan,[15] which retained ancient polytheistic beliefs until the 19th century when it was converted to Islam by the Durrani Empire and renamed Nuristan ("land of light").[16] The Hindu Kush range has also been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent,[17][18] and continues to be important to contemporary warfare in Afghanistan.[19][20]

  1. ^ Hindu Kush, Encyclopedia Iranica
  2. ^ a b Mike Searle (2013). Colliding Continents: A geological exploration of the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Tibet. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-165248-6., Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
  3. ^ George C. Kohn (2006). Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4381-2916-7.
  4. ^ "Hindu Kush Himalayan Region". ICIMOD. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  5. ^ Elalem, Shada; Pal, Indrani (2015). "Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters". Weather and Climate Extremes. 8: 46–58. doi:10.1016/j.wace.2014.12.001.
  6. ^ "Development of an ASSESSment system to evaluate the ecological status of rivers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region" (PDF). Assess-HKH.at. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  7. ^ Karakoram Range: MOUNTAINS, ASIA, Encyclopædia Britannica
  8. ^ Stefan Heuberger (2004). The Karakoram-Kohistan Suture Zone in NW Pakistan – Hindu Kush Mountain Range. vdf Hochschulverlag AG. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-3-7281-2965-9.
  9. ^ Spīn Ghar Range, MOUNTAINS, PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN, Encyclopædia Britannica
  10. ^ Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila S. Blair (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 389–390. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference deborahkh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Claudio Margottini (2013). After the Destruction of Giant Buddha Statues in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) in 2001: A UNESCO's Emergency Activity for the Recovering and Rehabilitation of Cliff and Niches. Springer. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-3-642-30051-6.
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Neelis2010p249 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Ibn Battuta; Samuel Lee (Translator) (2010). The Travels of Ibn Battuta: In the Near East, Asia and Africa. Cosimo (Reprint). pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-61640-262-4. {{cite book}}: |author2= has generic name (help); Columbia University Archive
  15. ^ Cacopardo, Augusto S. (15 February 2017). Pagan Christmas: Winter Feasts of the Kalasha of the Hindu Kush. ISBN 9781909942851.
  16. ^ Augusto S. Cacopardo (15 February 2017). Pagan Christmas: Winter Feasts of the Kalasha of the Hindu Kush. Gingko Library. ISBN 978-1-90-994285-1.
  17. ^ Konrad H. Kinzl (2010). A Companion to the Classical Greek World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 577. ISBN 978-1-4443-3412-8.
  18. ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-0-391-04174-5.
  19. ^ Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8.
  20. ^ Michael Ryan (2013). Decoding Al-Qaeda's Strategy: The Deep Battle Against America. Columbia University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-231-16384-2.

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