Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Βάχλο  (Bactrian)
256 BC–100 BC
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom circa 170 BC, under the reign of Eucratides the Great, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south.
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom circa 170 BC, under the reign of Eucratides the Great, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south.
CapitalBactra
Ai-Khanoum
Common languagesGreek (official)
Bactrian
Aramaic
Sogdian
Parthian
Religion
Hellenism
Zoroastrianism
Buddhism
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 256–239 BC
Diodotus I (first)
• 117–100 BC
Heliokles II (last )
Historical eraAntiquity
• Established
256 BC
• Disestablished
100 BC
Area
184 BC[1]2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Seleucid Empire
Indo-Greek Kingdom
Parthian Empire
Kushan Empire

The Bactrian Kingdom, known to historians as the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom or simply Greco-Bactria,[2][3] was a Hellenistic-era Greek state,[4] and along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world in Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent from its founding in 256 BC by Diodotus I Soter to its fall c. 120–100 BC under the reign of Heliocles II. It covered much of present-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, and at its zenith, parts of Iran, Pakistan. Bactria was ruled by the Diodotid dynasty and rival Euthydemid dynasty. The capitals of Ai-Khanum and Bactra were among the largest and richest of antiquity - Bactria itself was known as the ‘land of a thousand golden cities’. The Indo-Greek Kingdoms, as Bactrian successor states, would last until 10 AD.[5][6][7]

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3–4): 132. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  2. ^ https://brewminate.com/the-ancient-greco-bactrian-kingdom-and-hellenistic-afghanistan/ - Matthew A. McIntosh
  3. ^ Mairs, Rachel. "Bactrian or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom". The Encyclopedia of Empire: 1–4.
  4. ^ Cribb, Joe (2005). "The Greek Kingdom of Bactria, its coinage and its collapse". Afghanistan ancien carrefour entre lʼest et lʼouest: 1 – via Academia.
  5. ^ Doumanis, Nicholas. (16 Dec 2009) A History of Greece Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-1137013675 p 64
  6. ^ Baumer, Christoph. (11 Dec 2012) The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors Vol. 1 I.B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1780760605 p 289
  7. ^ Kaushik Roy. ( 28 July 2015) Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge, ISBN 978-1317321279

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