Geography of Afghanistan

Geography of Afghanistan
Topography of Afghanistan
RegionCentral Asia/South Asia
Coordinates33°00′N 65°00′E / 33.000°N 65.000°E / 33.000; 65.000
AreaRanked 40th
 • Total647,230 km2 (249,900 sq mi)
Coastline0 km (0 mi)
BordersPakistan 2,670 km (1,660 mi),
Tajikistan 1,357 km (843 mi),
Iran 921 km (572 mi),
Turkmenistan 804 km (500 mi),
Uzbekistan 144 km (89 mi),
China 91 km (57 mi)
Highest pointNoshaq, 7,492 m (24,580 ft)
Lowest pointAmu Darya at Khamyab, 258 m (846 ft)
Longest riverHelmand River
Largest lakeKamal Khan Dam
Kajaki Dam
Dahla Dam
Naghlu Dam
Band-e Amir
ClimateArid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrainmostly low plateau with deserts, rangelands and a fertile plain in the southeast
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stone[1][2][3][4][5]
Natural hazardsearthquakes, flooding, avalanches
Environmental issueslimited fresh water, soil degradation, overgrazing, deforestation, desertification, air pollution, water pollution

Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country located at the crossroads of Central[6][7] and South Asia.[8][9] It is also sometimes included as part of the Middle East.[10] The country is the 40th largest in the world in size. Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the Kabul Province. With a location at the intersection of major trade routes, Afghanistan has attracted a succession of invaders since the sixth century BCE.[11]

Afghanistan contains most of the Hindu Kush. There are four major rivers in the country: the Amu Darya, the Hari River, the Kabul River and the Helmand River. The country also contains many smaller rivers, lakes, and streams.[12]

  1. ^ Afghanistan, CIA World Factbook.
  2. ^ "Gold and copper discovered in Afghanistan" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Uranium Mining Issues: 2005 Review". Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  4. ^ Afghanistan's Energy Future and its Potential Implications Archived 2010-06-25 at the Wayback Machine,
  5. ^ Govt plans to lease out Ainak copper mine, Pajhwok Afghan News.
  6. ^ Tan, Anjelica (18 February 2020). "A new strategy for Central Asia". TheHill. , as Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has noted, Afghanistan is itself a Central Asian country.
  7. ^ Afghanistan | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. Cambridge University. ISBN 9781107619500.
  8. ^ * "U.S. maps". Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  9. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". UNdata. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  10. ^ "20th-century international relations". 8 December 1987. Archived from the original on 14 January 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). United States: Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 8, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Afghanistan and Pakistan's Looming Water Conflict was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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