Emirate of Afghanistan

Emirate of Afghanistan
امارت افغانستان (Persian)
Amārat-i Afghānistān
1823–1926
Afghanistan (orthographic projection).svg
Afghanmap1893.JPG
Map of the Emirate of Afghanistan in 1921 (green)
Afghanistan before the 1893 Durand Line Agreement (yellow)
StatusBritish protected state (1879–1919)[1]
CapitalKabul
Official languagesPersian
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazara, Persian, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Qizilbash, Pamiri, Kyrgyz, Sadat, others
Religion
Majority Sunni Islam (minorities Twelver Shia Islam, Ismailism, Hindusim, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Baháʼí Faith, Christianity, others)
Demonym(s)Afghan
GovernmentUnitary absolute emirate
Emir 
• 1823–1826 (first)
Sultan Mohammad Khan
• 1919–1926 (last)
Amanullah Khan
LegislatureLoya Jirga
Historical era19th century
• Established
14 March 1823
• Disestablished
9 June 1926
CurrencyAfghan rupee
ISO 3166 codeAF
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Durrani Empire
Emirate of Herat
Maimana Khanate
Kingdom of Afghanistan
Today part ofAfghanistan
Pakistan

The Emirate of Afghanistan also referred to as the Emirate of Kabul (Persian: امارت افغانستان, romanizedAmārat-i Afghānistān)[2] was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia that is now today's Afghanistan and some parts of today's Pakistan (before 1893). The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed.

The history of the Emirate was dominated by the 'Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the European influence in Afghanistan. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the Durrani Empire's war with the Sikh Empire, losing control of the former Afghan stronghold of the Valley of Peshawar at the Battle of Nowshera on 14 March 1823. This was followed in 1839 by the First Anglo-Afghan War with British forces. The war eventually resulted in victory for Afghans, with the British withdrawal[3] and Dost Mohammad being reinstalled to the throne.[3] However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1880), the British and Afghans signed the Treaty of Gandamak, which allowed the British to take the Afghan territories within modern day Pakistan and took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs on the condition of a subsidy paid to the Afghans and a full British military withdrawal. Emir Amanullah Khan signed the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 following the Third Anglo-Afghan War, gaining full Afghan independence. In 1926, Amanullah Khan reformed the country as the Kingdom of Afghanistan, becoming its first King.

  1. ^ https://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/iais/downloads/Onley_Raj_Reconsidered.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ Also known in Pashto as (د افغانستان امارت, lit. Da Afghānistān Amārat)
  3. ^ a b Kohn, George Childs (2013). Dictionary of Wars. Revised Edition. London/New York: Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 9781135954949.

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