Durrani Empire

Durrani Empire
د درانیانو ټولواکمني (Pashto)
امپراتوری درانیان (Persian)
  • 1747–1823
  • 1839–1842
Flag of Durrani Empire
Flag (1818–1842)
The Afghan Empire at its height under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
The Afghan Empire at its height under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
StatusEmpire (1747–1823; 1839–1842)
Common languages
Sunni Islam
GovernmentElective Monarchy
• 1747–1772
Ahmad Shah Durrani
• 1772
Humayun Mirza (Disputed with Timur Shah)
• 1772–1793
Timur Shah Durrani
• 1793–1801
Zaman Shah Durrani
• 1801–1803
Mahmud Shah Durrani
• 1803–1809
Shujah Shah Durrani
• 1809–1818 (Disputed in 1810)
Mahmud Shah Durrani
• 1810–1810 (Disputed)
Abbas Mirza Durrani
• 1818–1819
Ali Shah Durrani
• 1819–1823
Ayub Shah Durrani
• 1839–1842
Shujah Shah Durrani
Historical eraEarly modern period
• Dynasty established by Ahmad Shah Durrani
July 1747
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Afsharid Iran
Mughal Empire
Maratha Empire
Khanate of Bukhara
Emirate of Afghanistan
Sikh Empire
Emirate of Herat
Principality of Qandahar
Maimana Khanate

The Durrani Empire (Pashto: د درانيانو ټولواکمني; Persian: امپراتوری درانیان) or the Afghan Empire (د افغانان ټولواکمني; امپراتوری افغان),[6] also known as the Sadozai Kingdom (سدوزي ټولواکمني; دولت سدوزایی),[7] was an Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia. At its largest territorial extent, it ruled over the modern-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as parts of northeastern and southeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India.[8][7]: 190  Next to the Ottoman Empire, the Durrani Empire is considered to be among the most impactful Muslim empires of the latter half of the 18th century.[9]

Ahmad was the son of Muhammad Zaman Khan (an Afghan chieftain of the Abdali tribe) and the commander of Nader Shah Afshar. Following Afshar's death in June 1747, Ahmad secured Afghanistan by taking Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, and Peshawar. After his accession as the nation's king, he changed his tribal name from Abdali to Durrani. In 1749, the Mughal Empire had ceded sovereignty over much of northwestern India to the Afghans; Ahmad then set out westward to take possession of Mashhad, which was ruled by the Afsharid dynasty under Shahrokh Shah, who also acknowledged Afghan suzerainty.[10] Subsequently, Ahmad sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush down to the Amu Darya, and in short order, all of the different Afghan tribes began to join his cause. Under Ahmad, the Afghans invaded India on four separate occasions, subjugating parts of Kashmir and the majority of Punjab. In early 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted Mughal emperor Alamgir II to remain in nominal control as long as he acknowledged Afghan suzerainty over the regions south of the Indus River.

Following Ahmad's death in 1772, his son Timur Shah Durrani became the next ruler of the Durrani dynasty. Under Timur, the city of Kabul became the new capital of the Durrani Empire while Peshawar served as its winter capital; however, the empire had begun to crumble by this time.[11] The dynasty would become heirs of Afghanistan for generations, up until Dost Muhammad Khan and the Barakzai dynasty deposed the Durrani dynasty in Kabul, leading to its supersession by the Emirate of Afghanistan. The Durrani Empire is considered to be the foundational polity of the modern nation-state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad being credited as its Father of the Nation.[12]

  1. ^ Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud (2011). Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press. p. 185. ISBN 9780804777773. Retrieved 4 August 2012. Timur Shah transferred the Durrani capital from Qandahar in 1775–76. Kabul and Peshawar then shared time as the dual Durrani capital cities, the former during the summer and the latter during the winter season.
  2. ^ Singh, Sarina (2008). Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. p. 191. ISBN 9781741045420. Retrieved 10 August 2012. Like the Kushans, the Afghan kings favoured Peshawar as a winter residence, and were aggrieved when the upstart Sikh kingdom snatched it in 1818 and levelled its buildings.
  3. ^ L. Lee, Jonathan (1996). The Ancient Supremacy: Bukhara, Afghanistan and the Battle for Balkh, 1731–1901 (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 9004103996. Retrieved 8 March 2013. [The Sadozai kingdom] continued to exist in Herat until the city finally fell to Dost Muhammad Khan in 1862.
  4. ^ a b Schimmel 1975, p. 12.
  5. ^ a b Green, Nile (2019). "The Rise of New Imperial and National Languages (ca. 1800 – ca. 1930)". In Green, Nile (ed.). The Persianate World: The Frontiers of a Eurasian Lingua Franca. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0520972100. Despite Ahmad Shah Durrani's flirtations with founding a Pashto-based bureaucracy, when the capital moved from Qandahar to Kabul in 1772, Durrani and post-Durrani Afghanistan retained Persian as its chancery and chief court language.
  6. ^ Hatch Dupree, Nancy (2010). "Last Afghan empire". In Dupree, Louis; et al. (eds.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  7. ^ a b Lee, Jonathan L. (1 January 1996). The "Ancient Supremacy": Bukhara, Afghanistan and the Battle for Balkh, 1731–1901. BRILL. ISBN 9789004103993.
  8. ^ Singh, Ganda (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan (PDF). Asia Publishing House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  9. ^ Dupree, Louis (1980). Afghanistan. Princeton University Press. p. 334. ISBN 0-691-03006-5. Next to the Ottoman Empire, the Durrani Empire was the greatest Muslim empire of the second half of the eighteenth century.
  10. ^ Mojtahed-Zadeh, Pirouz (2007). Boundary Politics and International Boundaries of Iran. ISBN 9781581129335.
  11. ^ Malleson, George (1878). History of Afghanistan: From the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. p. 298. ISBN 0343739771. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  12. ^ "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 25 August 2010.

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