Dost Mohammad Khan

Dost Mohammad Khan
دوست محمد خان
Amir al-Mu'minin
Dost Mohammad Khan, 1793 to 1863. Emir of Afghanistan.jpg
Emir of Afghanistan
Reign1818 (brief)
Summer 1826 – 9 June 1863 (Disputed 1839-1842)
PredecessorSultan Mohammad Khan
SuccessorWazir Akbar Khan
Sher Ali Khan
Born23 December 1792
Kandahar, Durrani Empire
Died9 June 1863 (aged 70)
Herat, Emirate of Afghanistan
Shrine of Khwaja Abd Allah (Gazur Gah), Herat, Afghanistan[1]
Spouse16 wives[2]
Issue27 sons and 25 daughters at the time of his death[3]
Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai
DynastyBarakzai dynasty
FatherSardar Payinda Khan Muhammadzai (Sarfraz Khan)
MotherZainab Begum[4]
ReligionSunni Islam

Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai (Pashto/Persian: دوست محمد خان بارکزی; 23 December 1792 – 9 June 1863), nicknamed the Amir-i Kabir,[5][6][7] Also titled Amir al-Mu'minin, was a member of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of the Emirate of Afghanistan. His 37-year rule was important in the creation of modern Afghanistan.[8] With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became the Emir of Afghanistan in 1826.[9] He was the 11th son of Payinda Khan, chief of the Barakzai Pashtuns, who was killed in 1799 by Afghan Emperor Zaman Shah Durrani.[3]

Dost Mohammad had taken Kabul in 1818 but his official reign began at the beginning of his rule in 1826 when he assumed Kabul again. He again returned to power in 1843 after the First Anglo-Afghan War, where his rule was disputed from 1839-1842 by Shah Shuja Durrani. When Dost Mohammad ascended to the rule of Kabul, the Afghan realm faced a period of decline. Beset by civil war between the sons of Timur Shah Durrani, the formerly large Durrani Empire had split into multiple mutually-hostile principalities. By the end of his reign, he had reunited all the former split principalities (including Kandahar and Herat) with Kabul. Dost Mohammad also secured his country's independence from foreign powers in the First Anglo-Afghan War, defeating the British and their attempts to try and restore the former Durrani ruler to the throne, Shah Shuja Durrani. Dost had ruled for a lengthy 37 years though having been involved in the politics of Afghanistan for much longer. His rule saw the consolidation of Afghanistan, which was long divided following the Durrani civil wars which started in 1793. He would eventually triumph and lead his last campaign to capture Herat, finally conquering it on May 27, 1863. Dost Mohammad died shortly after this on 9 June 1863 at the age of 70, having accomplished his goal of reuniting Afghanistan.

  1. ^ Dalrymple, W. (2013). The Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan. Borzoi book. Bloomsbury. p. 478. ISBN 978-1-4088-1830-5. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  2. ^ H. Tarzi, Amin. "DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b Tarzi, Amin H. "DŌSTMOḤAMMAD KHAN". Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University.
  4. ^ "DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN". Iranonline. 15 December 1995. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  5. ^ McChesney, Robert; Khorrami, Mohammad Mehdi (19 December 2012). The History of Afghanistan (6 vol. set): Fayż Muḥammad Kātib Hazārah's Sirāj al-tawārīkh. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-23498-7.
  6. ^ Yusuf, Mohamed (1988). A History of Afghanistan, from 1793 A.D. to 1865 A.D. New York University. ISBN 1466222417.
  7. ^ Kakar, M. Hasan (2006). A Political and Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901. Brill. p. 10. ISBN 978-90-04-15185-7.
  8. ^ Encyclopædia BritannicaDost Mohammad Khan, "ruler of Afghanistan (1823–63) and founder of the Barakzay dynasty, who maintained Afghan independence during a time when the nation was a focus of political struggles between Great Britain and Russia..."
  9. ^ "Anglo-afghan wars", Encyclopaedia Iranica

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