Central Asia

Central Asia
Central Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Area4,003,451 km2 (1,545,741 sq mi)
Population72,960,000 (2019) (16th)[1][2]
Population density17.43 km2 (6.73 sq mi)
GDP (PPP)$1.0 trillion (2019)[3]
GDP (nominal)$300 billion (2019)[3]
GDP per capita$4,000 (2019; nominal)[3]
$14,000 (2019; PPP)[3]
HDIIncrease0.779 (high)
DemonymCentral Asian
Countries
LanguagesRussian, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Turkmen, Uzbek, and others
Time zones
2 time zones
Internet TLD.kg, .kz, .tj, .tm, .uz
Calling codeZone 9 except Kazakhstan (Zone 7)
Largest cities
UN M49 code143 – Central Asia
142Asia
001World
a With population over 500,000 people

Central Asia is a subregion of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia[4] in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.[5] It is also colloquially referred to as "The -Stans" as the countries all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[6]

In the pre-Islamic and early Islamic eras (c. 1000 and earlier) Central Asia was inhabited predominantly by Iranian peoples,[7][8] populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians, Chorasmians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae. After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia also became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Tatars, Turkmen, Kyrgyz, and Uyghurs; Turkic languages largely replaced the Iranian languages spoken in the area, with the exception of Tajikistan and areas where Tajik is spoken.

Central Asia was historically closely tied to the Silk Road trade routes,[9] acting as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe and the Far East.[10][11][12]

From the mid-19th century until almost the end of the 20th century, Central Asia was colonised by the Russians, and incorporated into the Russian Empire, and later the Soviet Union, which led to Russians and other Slavs emigrating into the area. Modern-day Central Asia is home to a large population of European settlers, who mostly live in Kazakhstan; 7 million Russians, 500,000 Ukrainians,[13][14][15] and about 170,000 Germans.[16] Stalinist-era forced deportation policies also mean that over 300,000 Koreans live there.[17]

Central Asia (2019) has a population of about 72 million people, in five countries: Kazakhstan (pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan (6 million), Tajikistan (9 million), Turkmenistan (6 million), and Uzbekistan (35 million).[18]

  1. ^ "World Population prospects – Population division". United Nations. Archived from the original on 5 February 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Overall total population" (xlsx). United Nations. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d "International Monetary Fund: 5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org. IMF. Outlook Database, October 2019
  4. ^ "Mongolia | History, Capital, Map, Flag, Language, Population, Size, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  5. ^ "Central Asia | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  6. ^ Paul McFedries (25 October 2001). "stans". Word Spy. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
  7. ^ Bosworth, C. E. (1990). "CENTRAL ASIA iv. In the Islamic Period up to the Mongols". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica, Volume V/2: C̆ehel Sotūn, Isfahan–Central Asia XIII. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 169–172. ISBN 978-0-939214-69-3. In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsī is regarded as the land allotted to Ferēdūn's son Tūr. The denizens of Tūrān were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Tūrān"). Tūrān thus became both an ethnic and a geographical term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians.
  8. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under the Umayyads and the establishment of Islam", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. Multiple History Series. Paris: Motilal Banarsidass Publ./UNESCO Publishing, 1999. excerpt from page 23: "Central Asia in the early seventh century, was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various Middle Iranian languages.".
  9. ^ Steppe Nomads and Central Asia Archived 29 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Silkroad Foundation, Adela C.Y. Lee. "Travelers on the Silk Road". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  11. ^ Ta'lim Primary 6 Parent and Teacher Guide (p. 72) – Islamic Publications Limited for the Institute of Ismaili Studies London
  12. ^ Phillips, Andrew; James, Paul (2013). "National Identity between Tradition and Reflexive Modernisation: The Contradictions of Central Asia". National Identities. 3 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1080/14608940020028475. S2CID 146570543. In Central Asia the collision of modernity and tradition led all but the most deracinated of the intellectuals-clerics to seek salvation in reconstituted variants of traditional identities rather than succumb to the modern European idea of nationalism. The inability of the elites to form a united front, as demonstrated in the numerous declarations of autonomy by different authorities during the Russian civil war, paved the way, in the early 1920s for the Soviet re-conquest of the Central Asia in the early 1920s.
  13. ^ Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей Archived 16 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
  14. ^ "5.01.00.03 Национальный состав населения" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009.
  15. ^ Итоги переписи населения Таджикистана 2000 года: национальный, возрастной, половой, семейный и образовательный составы Archived 7 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Demoscope.ru (20 January 2000). Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
  16. ^ Trochev, Alexei (22 February 2018), Horne, Cynthia M.; Stan, Lavinia (eds.), "Transitional Justice Attempts in Kazakhstan", Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union (1 ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 88–108, doi:10.1017/9781108182171.005, ISBN 978-1-108-18217-1, retrieved 4 December 2020
  17. ^ "Central Asia's Koreans in Korea: There and (Mostly) Back Again". openDemocracy. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  18. ^ "Демографическая ситуация" (PDF). Statistika qo'mitasi. Retrieved 19 March 2019.

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