|Ahmad Shah Durrani|
احمد شاه دراني
احمد شاه درانی
Shāh Durr-i-Durrān ("King, Pearl of Pearls")
|1st Emir of the Durrani Empire|
|Successor||Timur Shah Durrani|
|Born||Ahmad Khan Abdali|
Herat, Sadozai Sultanate of Herat (present-day Afghanistan)
or Multan, Mughal Empire (present-day Pakistan)
|Died|| (aged 49–52): 409 |
Maruf, Kandahar Province, Durrani Empire
|Father||Mohammad Zaman Khan Abdali|
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني; Dari: احمد شاه درانی), also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī (احمد شاه ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. In July 1747, Ahmad Shah was appointed as King of the Afghans by a loya jirga in Kandahar, where he set up his capital. Primarily with the support of the Pashtun tribes, Ahmad Shah pushed east towards the Mughal and Maratha Empires of India, west towards the disintegrating Afsharid Empire of Iran, and north towards the Khanate of Bukhara of Turkestan. Within a few years, he extended his control from Khorasan in the west to North India in the east, and from the Amu Darya in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south.
Soon after accession, Ahmad Shah adopted the epithet Shāh Durr-i-Durrān, "King, Pearl of Pearls," and changed the name of his Abdali tribe to "Durrani" after himself. The Tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani is located in the center of Kandahar, adjacent to Kirka Sharif (Shrine of the Cloak), which contains a cloak believed to have been worn by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Afghans often refer to Ahmad Shah as Ahmad Shāh Bābā, "Ahmad Shah the Father."
According to the Taẕkira of Anand Ram “Mukhliṣ,” Aḥmad Shāh issued a royal edict on 15 July 1747, appointing Muḥammad Hāshim Afrīdī as chief of the Afrīdī of the Peshawar region. This appears to affirm that Aḥmad Shāh’s accession took place no later than mid-July.
The fact that numerous sources composed in the ruler’s lifetime consistently connect him in his youth to Herat justifies the stance of Ghubār and others that Aḥmad Shāh was, in fact, born in the Herat region, around the time his father passed away and when the Abdālī leadership still exercised authority over the province.
Nichols 2015was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
Bloomsbury Publishingwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
Afghans refer to him as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah, the father).