Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shah Durrani
احمد شاه دراني
احمد شاه درانی
Padishah
Ghazi
Shāh Durr-i-Durrān ("King, Pearl of Pearls")
Portrait of Ahmad-Shah Durrani. Mughal miniature. ca. 1757, Bibliothèque nationale de France.jpg
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani, c. 1757
1st Emir of the Durrani Empire
Reign1747–1772
CoronationJuly 1747[1]
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorTimur Shah Durrani
BornAhmad Khan Abdali
1720–1722[2]: 287 
Herat, Sadozai Sultanate of Herat (present-day Afghanistan)[3]
or Multan, Mughal Empire (present-day Pakistan)[4][5]
Died (aged 49–52)[2]: 409 
Maruf, Kandahar Province, Durrani Empire
(present-day Afghanistan)
Burial
Tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, Kandahar, Afghanistan
31°37′10″N 65°42′25″E / 31.61944°N 65.70694°E / 31.61944; 65.70694Coordinates: 31°37′10″N 65°42′25″E / 31.61944°N 65.70694°E / 31.61944; 65.70694
SpouseHazrat Begum
Iffat-un-Nissa Begum
Names
Ahmad Shah Abdali Durr-i-Durrān
DynastyDurrani
FatherMohammad Zaman Khan Abdali
MotherZarghona Anaa[6]
ReligionSunni Islam

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني; Dari: احمد شاه درانی), also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī (احمد شاه ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.[7][8][9] In July 1747, Ahmad Shah was appointed as King of the Afghans by a loya jirga in Kandahar, where he set up his capital.[1] Primarily with the support of the Pashtun tribes,[10] Ahmad Shah pushed east towards the Mughal and Maratha Empires of India, west towards the disintegrating Afsharid Empire of Iran, and north towards the Khanate of Bukhara of Turkestan. Within a few years, he extended his control from Khorasan in the west to North India in the east, and from the Amu Darya in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south.[11][8][12]

Soon after accession, Ahmad Shah adopted the epithet Shāh Durr-i-Durrān, "King, Pearl of Pearls," and changed the name of his Abdali tribe to "Durrani" after himself. The Tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani is located in the center of Kandahar, adjacent to Kirka Sharif (Shrine of the Cloak), which contains a cloak believed to have been worn by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Afghans often refer to Ahmad Shah as Ahmad Shāh Bābā, "Ahmad Shah the Father."[7][13][14][15]

  1. ^ a b Nejatie, Sajjad (2017). The Pearl of Pearls: The Abdālī-Durrānī Confederacy and Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān (PhD). University of Toronto. p. 293. According to the Taẕkira of Anand Ram “Mukhliṣ,” Aḥmad Shāh issued a royal edict on 15 July 1747, appointing Muḥammad Hāshim Afrīdī as chief of the Afrīdī of the Peshawar region. This appears to affirm that Aḥmad Shāh’s accession took place no later than mid-July.
  2. ^ a b Nejatie, Sajjad (2017). The Pearl of Pearls: The Abdālī-Durrānī Confederacy and Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān (PhD). University of Toronto.
  3. ^ Nejatie, Sajjad (2017). The Pearl of Pearls: The Abdālī-Durrānī Confederacy and Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān (PhD). University of Toronto. p. 293. The fact that numerous sources composed in the ruler’s lifetime consistently connect him in his youth to Herat justifies the stance of Ghubār and others that Aḥmad Shāh was, in fact, born in the Herat region, around the time his father passed away and when the Abdālī leadership still exercised authority over the province.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nichols 2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bloomsbury Publishing was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ "Afghan first lady in shadow of 1920s queen?". 1 October 2014 – via www.aljazeera.com.
  7. ^ a b "Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  8. ^ a b Friedrich Engels (1857). "Afghanistan". Andy Blunden. The New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  9. ^ Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  10. ^ D. Balland. "Afghanistan: x. Political History". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1982.
  11. ^ "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  12. ^ Chayes, Sarah (2006). The Punishment of Virtue: Inside Afghanistan After the Taliban. Univ. of Queensland Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  13. ^ Singh, Ganḍā (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan. Asia Publishing House. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-4021-7278-6. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  14. ^ "Ahmad Shah Abdali". Abdullah Qazi. Afghanistan Online. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010. Afghans refer to him as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah, the father).
  15. ^ Runion, Meredith L. (2007). The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7. Retrieved 23 September 2010.

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