Regions with significant populations
 Afghanistan38.9 million (2021 estimate)
Pashto, Dari and other languages of Afghanistan
Majority Sunni Islam with minorities of Shia Islam, Sikhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism
Population of the Afghan diaspora worldwide

Afghans (Pashto: افغانان, romanized: afghanan, Dari: افغان ها, romanized: afghānhā) or Afghan people are nationals or citizens of Afghanistan, or people with ancestry from there.[1][2] Concurrently the term "Afghan" can refer to someone or something of that country.[3] Afghanistan is made up of various ethnicities, of which the Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks are the largest; the pre-nation state, historical ethnonym Afghan was used to refer to a member of the Pashtuns, an ethnicity that traditionally resides in the modern Afghanistan-Pakistan border region. Due to the changing political nature of the state, such as the British-drawn border with Pakistan the term has shifted to be the national identity of people from Afghanistan from all ethnicities.[4][5][6] The two main languages spoken by Afghans are Pashto and Dari (the Afghan dialect of Persian language), and many are bilingual.[7][8]

  1. ^ Garner, Bryan (2009). Garner's Modern American Usage (third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-538275-4.
  2. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William (2015). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage (fifth ed.). New York: Crown Publishing Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-336-02484-7.
  3. ^ "Afghan (noun) definition and synonyms | Oxford Dictionary". Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  4. ^ "Ask Johnson: Afghans, Afghanis, Afghanistanis". The Economist. September 21, 2011.
  5. ^ Kieffer, Ch. M. "Afghan". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. From a more limited, ethnological point of view, "Afḡān" is the term by which the Persian-speakers of Afghanistan (and the non-Paṧtō-speaking ethnic groups generally) designate the Paṧtūn. The equation Afghans = Paṧtūn has been propagated all the more, both in and beyond Afghanistan, because the Paṧtūn tribal confederation is by far the most important in the country, numerically and politically.
  6. ^ "ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD poll – Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (PDF). ABC News. Kabul, Afghanistan. pp. 38–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  7. ^ "The Constitution of Afghanistan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  8. ^ "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2012. Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state. Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani and Pamiri are – in addition to Pashto and Dari – the third official language in areas where the majority speaks them

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